Ottawa Transit Productivity and Bus Rapid Transit
We have divided up our document, Ottawa Transit Productivity and Bus Rapid Transit, into more readable parts.
Abstract of Special Report No. 8:
Ottawa, Canada’s capital, has the most extensive bus rapid transit (BRT) services in North America. The core "Transitway" network includes busways, reserved lanes and mixed traffic operation totalling 46.3 km (28.7 mi), opened in stages from 1983. Most performance indicators revealed significant negative trends as transitway service expanded. Ridership did not grow as anticipated prior to construction. Ridership declined during 1984-1997 despite increasing population and employment; ridership per-capita fell by half. The previous doubling of ridership during 1971-1984 was not sustainable absent major productivity gains: bus-km per capita tripled, inflation-adjusted operating expense per capita increased 2.5 times, and the revenue : cost ratio fell from 98 to 60 percent. Productivity did not increase as transitway service expanded. Real wage rates remained stable during 1982-2002 but operating cost per revenue service hour rose by nearly 60 percent. Maintenance costs, fuel consumption, non-revenue ("deadhead") km and road calls all increased while labor utilization became less efficient. Available data suggest, but merely suggest, a sharp increase in customer complaints coinciding with a period of decreasing service reliability and declining ridership. However, the undertaking managed to improve service effectiveness and so moderated the negative trends in cost-effectiveness. The 1984-1997 ridership decrease is unfortunate but less troubling than productivity declines during the same period. These suggest "inherent" or "structural" inefficiencies associated with Ottawa’s transitway program. The implied annual cost is (2002 CAD) 65 million (2002 USD 42 million) based on 2002 service levels; the implied cumulative cost during 1982-2002 is (2002 CAD) 1,360 million (2002 USD 865 million). Additional research is indicated to identify underlying causal factors and possible counter-strategies.
Executive Summary:
Per-Capita Performance Indicators:
Ridership Indicators:
Cost Effectiveness and Cost Recovery:
Cost Efficiency:
Maintenance Cost:
Staff Productivity:
Service Effectiveness:
"Peak-to-Base" Ratio:
Operator (Driver) Pay Rates and Productivity Indicators:
Utilization of Labor: "Speed Made Good":
Utilization of Vehicles: Annual km per Peak Vehicle:
Energy Efficiency:
"Deadheading:" Revenue and Non-Revenue Vehicle-km:
Annual Vehicle-km Per Maintenance Employee:
Service Hours and km per Road Call:
Standard and Articulated Buses:
OC Transpo Operating Data - 1982-2002:
OC Transpo Performance Measures - 1982-2002: