PEAK-PERIOD VEHICLE OCCUPANCY STATISTICS
FOR U.S. AND CANADIAN RAPID BUS AND RAPID RAIL SERVICES
Passengers Per Vehicle and Passengers Per Meter of Vehicle Length
publictransit.us Monograph 02-01Final Report
 
Leroy W. Demery, Jr. • April 18, 2005 • Updated October 2007
 
 
Copyright 2005-2007, Leroy W. Demery, Jr
HOV and Busway Services
Note: It is very important to distinguish between 1.) counts of actual passenger volumes, and 2.) flow rates, which are determined by counting passenger volumes during some other interval (generally the busiest five, fifteen or twenty minutes), then scaling up to an hourly rate. Such flow rates will substantially exceed the maximum volume that may actually be observed during the busiest 60-minute interval. Statistics in this section which appear to be derived from flow rates, rather than actual observations or counts during a 60-minute interval, are marked “Q.”
 
FACILITY
DATE
MAXIMUM PEAK VOLUME (1-hr)
VEHICLE OCCUPANCY
Pass/Veh
Pass/Meter of Vehicle Length
 
Atlanta
Peachtree St (reserved bus lane)
1964 (ca.)
3,015
45
3.7
 
1995 (post-)
2,800
42
3.5
 
Baltimore
Baltimore St (mixed traffic, no parking)
1964 (ca.)
4,387
58
4.8
Boston
Southeast Expressway
1971
2,454
38
3.1
 
1977
2,124
39
3.2
 
Chicago
N. Michigan Av (mixed traf, no parking)
1964 (ca.)
4,240
24
2.0
 
1972-76
* (11,400)
50
(4.1)
 
1995 (post-)
3,600
32
2.7
         
State St (transit mall)
1972-76
** (9,000)
50
(4.1)
         
Washington Blvd (reserved bus lane)
1964 (ca.)
3,235
49
4.0
         
N. Lakeshore Dr (expressway)
1964 (ca.)
5,595
57
4.7
 
1995 (post-)
4,000
50
4.1
* 5-minute flow scaled up to hourly rate.                                                ** 15-minute flow scaled up to hourly rate.
 
Cleveland
Euclid Av (mixed traffic, no parking)
1964 (ca.)
4,316
48
3.9
 
Dallas
Commerce St (mixed traffic, no parking)
1964 (ca.)
3,196
47
3.9
 
Denver
Broadway (reserved bus lane)
1995 (post-)
2,325
26
2.2
 
Houston
I-10 (Katy) Transitway
1985
1,160
33
2.7
 
1990
1,820
40
3.2
         
I-45N (North) Transitway
1985
2,620
37
3.0
 
1990
2,810
37
3.0
 
1995 (post-)
2,800
37
3.0
         
I-45S (Gulf) Transitway
1995 (post-)
840
32
2.7
         
US 290 (Northwest) Transitway
1995 (post-)
600
35
2.9
 
Los Angeles
San Bernardino Freeway
1964
701
41
3.4
El Monte Transitway
1973
1,017
23
1.9
 
1977
2,708
33
2.7
 
1985
3,190
46
3.8
 
1990
2,750
39
3.2
Cal State L.A, a.m.
1993.2
2,600
35
2.9
 
1995 (post-)
2,750
39
3.2
         
Golden State Freeway
1964
787
46
3.8
         
Harbor Freeway
1964
1,102
50
4.1
 
1972-76
1,050
46
3.8
Harbor Transitway, Slauson, p.m.
2000.2
300
22
1.1
         
Hollywood Freeway
1964
1,671
51
4.2
 
1972-76
1,775
49
4.0
         
Santa Ana Freeway
1964
616
39
3.2
         
Santa Monica Freeway
1964
537
49
4.0
 
Miami
Interstate-95
1976
314
31
2.5
 
1977
352
35
2.9
         
South Dade Busway, Dadeland So, a.m.
2000.8
(est) 600
35
(bus) 2.9
     
23
(van) 3.8
       
(wtd avg) 3.1
 
Minneapolis
Interstate-394
1990
455
35
2.9
 
New York
Ramp to Port Authority Bus Terminal
1962 (ca.)
23,187
45
3.7
Lincoln Tunnel (I-495) "XBL" bus lane
1971
26,902
44
3.6
 
1972-76
32,560
44
3.6
 
1990
34,685
48
3.9
 
1991
31,925
41
3.4
 
1995 (post-)
32,600
44
3.6
a.m.
1998.10.21
32,531
32
2.6
         
Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel contra-flow lane
1995 (post-)
7,500
50
4.2
a.m.
1998.10.21
5,888
31
2.6
         
Fulton St, Brooklyn (mixd traffic, no parking)
1962 (ca.)
3,150
42
3.4
         
Hillside Ave, Queens (mixd traffic, no parking)
1962 (ca.)
10,251
68
5.6
 
1972-76
8,500
50
4.1
         
Long Island Expressway contra-flow lane
1995 (post-)
7,840
48
4.0
         
Madison Ave, Manhattan contra-flow lane
1972-84
Q 10,000
50
Q 4.1
 
1995 (post-)
Q 10,000
55
Q 4.5
p.m.
1998.10.21
2,445
37
3.0
         
Second Ave, Manhattan contra-flow lane
1972-76
5,500
50
4.1
a.m.
1998.10.21
1,520
43
3.5
 
Ottawa
"Ottawa-Carleton Transitway"
1990
Q 11,000
Q 61
Q 4.5 (1)
         
"East Transitway"
1989
Q 9,000
   
         
Southeast Transitway
1985
Q 8,100
Q 52
Q 3.8 (1)
 
1995 (post-)
Q "
Q "
Q "
         
Southwest Transitway
1985
Q 4,200
46 Q
Q 3.4 (1)
         
SE / SW Transitway, Lees, p.m. - express
1992.8
1,840
19
1.3 (2)
- stopping
 
1,550
27
1.8 (3)
- total
 
3,390
23
1.7 (4)
         
Lees, a.m. - express
2000.8
2,100
25
2.1
- stopping
 
2,400
37
2.6 (5)
- total
 
4,500
30
2.3 (6)
         
Lees, p.m. - peak routes
2000.8
1,800
18
1.5 (7)
- all-day routes
 
1,400
28
1.9 (8)
- total
 
3,200
21
1.6 (9)
         
West Transitway
1985
Q 6,900
Q 62
Q 3.8 (1)
 
1989
Q 9,000
   
 
1995 (post-)
Q 11,100
Q 49
Q 3.6 (1)
         
Tunney’s Pasture, a.m. - peak routes
2000.8
2,600
28
2.3
- all-day routes
 
2,100
43
3.1 (10)
- total
 
4,700
33
2.6 (11)
         
Tunney’s Pasture, p.m. - peak routes
2000.8
2,000
30
2.5
- all-day routes
 
1,900
51
3.5 (12)
- total
 
3,900
38
2.9 (13)
         
Slater Street - a.m.
1995 (post-)
Q 11,000
Q 51
Q 3.8 (1)
 p.m.
 
Q 9,300
Q 50
Q 3.7 (1)
Notes: 1992.8 and 2000.8 data are from personal observation of actual volumes at Lees station, 28 August 1992, and at Lees and Tunney’s Pasture stations, 18-19 August 2000. Other Ottawa data are derived evidently from 5-minute passenger flows, scaled up to hourly rates.
1. based on composite vehicle length of 13.715 meters, assuming 25 percent articulated vehicles.
2. weighted average, 89 standard buses averaged 18 pass/veh; 10 articulated buses averaged 24 pass/veh.
3. weighted average, 30 standard buses averaged 28 pass/veh; 28 articulated buses averaged 34 pass/veh.
4. weighted average, 119 standard buses and 38 articulated buses.
5. weighted average, 45 standard buses averaged 32 pass/veh; 19 articulated buses averaged 48 pass/veh.
6. weighted average, 127 standard buses and 19 articulated buses.
7. weighted average, 95 standard buses averaged 18 pass/veh; 2 articulated buses averaged 20 pass/veh.
8. weighted average, 36 standard buses averaged 17 pass/veh; 14 articulated buses averaged 57 pass/veh.
9. weighted average, 131 standard buses and 16 articulated buses.
10. weighted average, 33 standard buses averaged 30 pass/veh; 16 articulated buses averaged 55 pass/veh.
11. weighted average, 125 standard buses and 16 articulated buses.
12. weighted average, 22 standard buses averaged 45 pass/veh; 15 articulated buses averaged 61 pass/veh.
13. weighted average, 90 standard buses and 15 articulated buses.
 
Philadelphia
Ben Franklin Bridge
1972-76
5,065
37
3.0
Schuylkill Expressway
"
2,800
36
3.0
 
Pittsburgh
East Busway
1985
4,200
42
* 3.1
 
1989
5,500
   
 
1990
5,892
57
* 4.2
 
1997.3
5,389
46
* 3.4
 Negley, p.m.
2000
4,002
39
* 2.8
         
East Busway, Negley, p.m. - nonartic., exp.
1992.8
2,300
36
3.0
- articulated
 
1,200
48
2.6
"     "     "     " - total
 
3,500
39
2.8 **
         
South Busway
1985
2,620
37
3.0
 
1990
2,098
41
3.4
 
1997.3
1,955
35
2.9
 
1995 (post-)
2,100
42
3.5
 South Hills Junction, p.m.
2000
1,858
33
2.7
         
Interstate-279 HOV
1990
485
37
3.0
 
1997.3
783
39
3.2
Notes:
*    based on composite vehicle length of 13.715 meters, assuming 25 percent articulated vehicles.
**    weighted average, 64 standard and 25 articulated buses.
1992.8 data are from personal observation of actual volume at Negley Ave station, 31 August 1992.
 
Portland
Banfield Freeway
1977
570
29
2.4
 
1980
657
30
2.5
         
Portland Mall
1972-78
Q 9,000
Q 50
Q * 3.6
         
Portland Mall - 6th Avenue
1995 (post-)
Q 8,500
Q 50
Q * 3.6
Portland Mall - 5th Avenue
1995 (post-)
Q 8,300
Q 50
Q * 3.6
Note: * based on composite vehicle length of 13.715 meters, assuming 25 percent articulated vehicles.
 
Rochester
Main St (reserved bus lane)
1962 (ca.)
4,982
54
4.4
 
1972-78
4,000
50
4.1
 
1995 (post-)
4,000
50
4.1
 
San Diego
Interstate-15
1990
350
25
2.0
 
San Francisco
U.S. 101
1975
3,572
38
3.1
 
1976
3,686
38
3.1
 
1995 (post-)
2,800
35
2.9
concurrent flow
1985
2,980
33
2.7
contraflow
"
6,000
40
3.3
         
Bay Bridge (pre-BART)
1964 (ca.)
7,812
36
3.0
 
1972-76
13,000
40
3.3
         
Bay Bridge (post-BART)
1972-76
8,900
44
3.6
 
1985
6,690
36
3.0
 
1995 (post-)
5,000
37
3.1
         
Market St (mixed traffic, no parking)
1964 (ca.)
7,553
58
4.8
Van Ness, p.m.
1999.7
912
22
3.4
 
Seattle
Route 15 - West Seattle (trolleybus), p.m.
1941
800
50
4.8
 
1944
1,300
72
6.8
         
Interstate-5, a.m.
1985
1,480
42
* 2.8
 
1990
2,605
41
* 2.7
 
1995 (post-)
2,750
39
* 2.6
         
Interstate-5, p.m.
1985
2,160
39
* 2.6
         
Evergreen Point Bridge (SR-520), p.m.
1985
2,300
42
* 2.8
Evergreen Point Bridge (SR-520), a.m.
1990
3,140
56
* 3.7
         
Interstate-90
1990
1,250
37
* 2.4
         
Tunnel, International District, north, a.m.
1999.6
1,590
39
2.1
south, p.m.
2000.7
2,500
47
2.6
         
Tunnel, Convention Place, south, a.m.
1999.6
1,730
48
2.6
north, p.m.
2000.7
2,600
54
3.0
Notes:
       
* based on composite vehicle length of 15.24 meters, assuming 50 percent articulated vehicles.
Northward and southward routes using the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel are not through-routed, as planned prior to construction. Northward routes originate at International District, while southward routes originate at Convention Place. Vehicle-occupancy statistics include only those buses continuing beyond Convention Place (northward) or International District (southward), and do not include terminating buses. Counts of “through” and “terminating” buses are presented below:
 
LOCATION
DATE
Through Buses
Terminating Buses
Total Buses
International District, a.m.
1999.6
41
15
56
p.m.
2000.7
54
14
68
         
Convention Place, a.m.
1999.6
36
12
48
p.m.
2000.7
48
21
69
 
Vancouver, BC
Lions Gate Bridge
1972-76
2,000
44
3.6
 
1990
1,080
40
3.3
         
Granville Mall
1995 (post-)
1,800
26
2.1
 
Washington, DC
Shirley Highway Transitway
1972-76
10,000
50
4.1
 
1974
8,756
55
4.5
 
1985
5,530
35
2.9
 
1990
5,621
35
2.9
 
1995 (post-)
5,000
31
2.6
         
Interstate-66
1985
3,080
34
2.8
 
1990
398
31
2.5
 
1995 (post-)
2,920
34
2.7
         
Memorial Bridge (pre-Metro)
1972-76
4,020
40
3.3
         
14th St
1972-76
8,000
50
4.1
Note: Standard buses are assumed to be 40' (12.19m) long; articulated buses are assumed to be 60' (18.29m) long.
 
Rail Systems
Atlanta
East Line
1980.6
4,250
118
5.2
West Line
"
3,725
103
4.5
East-West Line
1994
2,986
50
2.2
North-South Line
"
5,093
88
3.8
 
Baltimore
Metro, State Center, a.m.
2000.8
3,700
84
3.7
Central C’dor LRT, U of B / Mt. Royal, p.m
"
* 650
65
2.3
Camden yards, p.m.
920
66
2.3
Note: * Exclusive of trains to Penn Station terminal, which carried very few passengers.
 
Boston
Red Line (Dorchester Tunnel)
1977.6
8,651
98
4.6
Red Line (Longfellow Bridge)
"
6,526
74
3.5
Red Line
1985
13,000
191
9.0
 
1994
9,282
115
5.4
         
Orange Line (Washington St Elevated)
1977.6
8,350
160
9.5
Orange Line (Haymarket-North Extension)
"
6,050
116
6.9
Orange Line
1985
9,000
150
8.9
 
1994
7,379
92
5.5
         
Blue Line (East Boston Tunnel)
1977.6
5,088
85
5.8
Blue Line
1994
6,389
94
6.4
         
Green Line (Boylston St Tunnel)
1976
6,897
78
6.1
 
1985
10,600
125
5.7
Green Line (Lechmere Viaduct)
1976
1,499
31
2.4
 
1985
1,600
133
6.1
Green Line
1994
10,000
111
5.1
 
Weekday Ridership
Line
FY 2000
1996
1995
1994
1992
1976
Blue + Orange + Red
439,502
398,000
     
280,000
             
Blue
56,940
         
Orange
157,122
         
Red
225,400
         
             
Green
222,690
251,000
       
Subway + Lechmere
148,000
     
105,000
 
Surface
74,610
   
78,000
   
B Boston College
   
30,475
     
C Cleveland Circle
   
14,522
     
D Riverside
   
21,770
     
E Heath St
   
14,647
     
   
(1997)
       
Ashmont-Mattapan
 
7,752
       
 
Buffalo
LRRT
1997.3
1,240
50
1.7
Note: Average weekday ridership: 25,000 (1995-97).
 
Calgary
South Line
1994
4,950
150
5.5
east entrance to CBD, a.m.
2000.spring
4,660
119
4.4
 
2002.4.3
4,460
121
4.5
         
Northeast Line
1994
3,395
103
3.8
east entrance to CBD, a.m.
2000.spring
4,550
126
4.6
 
2002.4.3
3,140
98
3.6
         
Northwest Line, Sunnyside, a.m.
2000.spring
3,650
101
3.7
 
Chicago
Lake Street
1976.5
5,015
52
3.6
Dan Ryan
"
12,498
92
6.3
         
Lake St - Dan Ryan
1984
12,300
81
5.5
         
Lake - Englewood / Jackson Park (Green)
1994
2,952
* 70
* 4.5
         
Howard
1976.5
8,038
61
4.2
Englewood / Jackson Park
"
4,802
52
3.6
Ravenswood / Evanston
"
7,329
56
3.8
North - South
1984
11,400
95
6.5
         
Howard - Dan Ryan (Red)
1994
11,533
* 96
* 6.2
Ravenswood (Brown)
"
7,051
* 73
* 4.7
Evanston (Purple)
"
3,479
* 82
* 5.3
         
Northwest (Milwaukee)
1976.5
10,213
77
5.3
"
1984
12,400
91
6.2
Dearborn St Subway
1994
9,376
84
5.7
         
Congress / Douglas
1976.5
4,921
48
3.3
Northwest - Congress / Douglas (Blue)
1994
9,376
84
5.7
         
Midway (Orange)
1994
4,287
* 65
* 4.2
Note: * estimate, assuming service frequencies as shown in public timetables.
Average weekday ridership: 466,000 (1995); 489,000 (1976). Total busiest-hour ridership: 39,000 (1994).
 
Cleveland
Rapid, East Side
1976.12
4,100
132
6.2
         
Rapid, West Side
1960
6,200
77
3.6
 
1976.12
5,413
110
5.1
         
Rapid
1997
1,230
61
2.8
 
2000
1,200 - 1,300
60-65
2.8 - 3.0
         
LRT, Shaker Heights
1976.12
4,390
104
5.5
 
2000
1,200 - 1,300
60-65
2.6 - 2.8
 
Dallas
Red Line, City Place
1997
1,440
120
4.2
         
Red / Blue Lines, south, Union Station, a.m.
2000.6
1,900
68
2.4
 West End, p.m.
2000.6
1,660
62
2.2
         
Red / Blue Lines, north, Mockingbird, a.m.
2000.6
1,385
51
1.8
 Pearl, p.m.
2000.6
1,320
49
1.7
 
Denver
Central LRT
1994
3,000
* 150
* 6.2
Auraria, a.m.
1996
1,133
57
2.3
 
2000.8
2,000
71
2.9
         
LRT, 10th/Osage, n.b., a.m
2002.4-5
2,400
77
3.1
s.b., p.m.
2002.4-5
2,100
64
2.6
Note: * estimate, assuming service frequency as shown in public timetable.
 
Edmonton
Northeast LRT
1978
2,085
87
3.6
 
1994
3,219
89
3.7
 
Los Angeles
Line P (streetcar), E. 1st / Santa Fe, a.m.
1923.2
2,523
87
** 6.2
p.m.
 
3,739
96
** 6.8
         
Red Line
1997
3,400
85
3.7
Westlake / MacArthur, westbound, p.m.
1999.7
2,330
49
2.1
Westlake / MacArthur, eastbound, p.m.
1999.7
1,710
36
1.5
 
2001
3,400
57
2.5
         
Blue Line (LRT)
1994
2,416
134
4.9
 
1997
2,400
120
4.4
 
2001
2,618
119
4.4
         
Green Line (LRT), R. Parks, eastbound, p.m.
2000.2
1,200
120
4.4
 
2001
1,112
139
5.1
Note: ** Based on vehicle length of 14.11 meters, derived by averaging the length of “B” (“Huntington Standard”) and “H” class streetcars.
 
ciudad de México
Line 1
1994
70,700
157
9.3
Line 2
 
75,300
161
9.5
Line 3
 
63,000
135
7.9
Line 4
 
7,400
63
3.7
Line 5
 
20,700
100
5.9
Line 6
 
10,300
95
5.6
Line 7
 
18,300
131
7.7
Line 9
 
27,600
133
7.9
Line A
 
18,100
151
8.9
Notes: Average weekday ridership: Nine STC lines: 4,450,000 (1994). Line 2: 1,200,000 (1994). Line 1: 1,000,000 (1994).
Total busiest-hour ridership: Nine STC lines : 311,000 (1994). Busiest-hour total for New York was slightly less: 307,000 (1994).
 
Miami
Metrorail
1994
3,698
   
"     ", Vizcaya, a.m.
1998.10
3,854
74
3.3
"     ", Brickell, p.m.
1998. 5
3,673
61
2.7
Note: Average weekday ridership: 920,000 (1994); 480,000 (1976).
 
Montréal
Line 1, from Atwater
1976
4,333
34
2.0
Line 1, Berri-de-Montigny [Berri-UQAM]
"   "
19,110
125
7.3
Line 1
1994
21,869
121
7.1
Line 1, p.m.
1998
31,563
175
10.3
         
Line 2, Berri-de-Montigny [Berri-UQAM]
1976
28,230
136
8.0
Line 2
1994
24,382
135
8.0
Line 2, p.m.
1998
33,421
186
10.9
         
Line 4
1976
13,913
145
8.5
"    "
1994
10,928
152
9.0
Line 4, p.m.
1998
15,664
134
7.9
         
Line 5
1994
6,360
71
4.2
Line 5, p.m.
1998
10,304
88
5.2
See under “Notes” below re. Canadian Transit Handbook, Second Edition.
 
Newark
PATH
1976
1,150
11
0.7
         
City Subway LRT
1976
1,512
50
3.8
 
1978
1,500
50
3.8
 
1994
1,769
59
4.2
 
New York
IRT Lexington Ave Express
1960
44,500
144
9.2
 
1976.10
35,170
155
9.9
 
1982
38,100
152
9.8
 
1991
35,777
138
8.9
 
1994
33,938
117
7.5
a.m.
1997
30,571
113
7.2
a.m.
1998.10.21
28,736
111
7.1
a.m.
2004
28,940
126
8.0
         
IRT Lexington Ave Local
1976.10
26,450
147
9.6
 
1991
23,503
112
7.2
 
1994
29,175
133
8.5
a.m.
1997
25,817
123
7.9
a.m.
1998.10.21
24,027
104
6.6
a.m.
2004
25,305
105
6.7
         
IRT Lexington Ave (Joralemon Street Tunnel)
1976.10
22,460
132
8.3
 
1991
20,922
149
9.6
 
1994
26,236
114
7.3
a.m.
1997
26,362
91
5.8
a.m.
1998.10.21
24,928
105
6.7
a.m.
2004
22,352
93
6.0
         
IRT Broadway Express
1976.10
27,290
151
9.6
 
1991
26,171
125
8.0
 
1994
24,099
120
7.7
a.m.
1997
23,550
112
7.2
a.m.
1998.10.21
21,225
111
7.1
a.m.
2004
26,001
118
7.6
         
IRT Broadway Local
1976.10
14,590
104
6.7
 
1991
14,295
95
6.1
 
1994
16,991
106
6.8
a.m.
1997
16,848
112
7.2
a.m.
1998.10.21
13,399
96
6.2
a.m.
2004
12.300
82
5.3
         
IRT Broadway (Clark Street Tunnel)
1976.10
15,870
98
6.7
 
1991
18,162
137
8.8
 
1994
15,073
88
5.6
a.m.
1997
15,583
80
5.1
a.m.
1998.10.21
17,064
97
6.2
a.m.
2004
12,725
80
5.1
         
IRT Flushing (Steinway Tunnel)
1976.10
37,060
116
7.5
 
1991
35,566
115
7.4
 
1994
23,369
101
6.5
a.m.
1997
24,256
88
5.7
a.m.
1998.10.21
25,480
97
6.2
a.m.
2004
22,886
80
5.1
         
IND Queens (53rd Street Tunnel)
1960
61,400
192
10.4
 
1976.10
53,330
200
10.9
 
1982
54,500
262
13.4
 
1991
53,343
195
9.7
 
1994
49,829
195
9.7
a.m.
1997
39,526
159
7.9
a.m.
1998.10.21
50,511
197
9.8
a.m.
2004
21,794
99
5.4
         
IND 8th Ave Express
1960
62,000
207
11.2
 
1976.10
32,660
146
7.9
 
1982
43,500
209
10.7
 
1991
20,715
128
6.4
 
1994
21,828
128
6.4
a.m.
1997
24,140
157
7.9
a.m.
1998.10.21
23,882
168
8.4
a.m.
2004
20,055
119
6.5
         
IND 8th Ave Local
1976.10
13,770
91
4.9
 
1991
7,987
74
3.7
 
1994
8,351
77
3.8
a.m.
1997
9,107
103
5.1
a.m.
1998.10.21
9,073
95
4.7
a.m.
2004
10,995
102
4.9
         
IND 8th Ave (Cranberry Street Tunnel)
1976.10
28,110
148
7.9
 
1991
24,627
134
6.7
 
1994
28,167
120
6.0
a.m.
1997
24,049
147
7.4
a.m.
1998.10.21
24,850
123
6.2
a.m.
2004
22,896
111
5.2
         
IND 6th Ave (Rutgers Street Tunnel)
1976.10
9,840
91
4.9
 
1991
11,887
99
4.9
 
1994
12,910
115
5.7
a.m.
1997
11,914
114
5.7
a.m.
1998.10.21
13,047
110
5.5
a.m.
2004
10,229
95
4.3
         
BMT Canarsie (14th Street Tunnel)
1976.10
11,020
138
7.3
 
1991
11,726
113
5.6
 
1994
10,609
103
5.1
a.m.
1997
12,398
131
6.5
a.m.
1998.10.21
16,004
129
6.4
a.m.
2004
18,678
156
8.5
         
BMT Jamaica (Williamsburgh Bridge)
1976.10
14,820
103
5.8
 
1991
18,901
139
6.9
 
1994
18,037
113
5.6
a.m.
1997
13,878
76
3.8
a.m.
1998.10.21
13,293
96
4.8
a.m.
2004
11,465
84
4.6
         
BMT Manhattan Bridge
1976.10
38,870
136
7.4
 
1991
20,715
119
5.9
 
1994
21,828
155
7.7
a.m.
1997
31,463
116
5.8
a.m.
1998.10.21
31,548
124
6.2
a.m.
2004
35,278
118
5.5
         
BMT Astoria (60th Street Tunnel)
1976.10
31,720
159
8.2
 
1991
22,233
108
5.4
 
1994
21,828
116
5.8
a.m.
1997
24,914
145
7.3
a.m.
1998.10.21
22,722
142
7.1
a.m.
2004
22,382
115
5.1
         
BMT Montague Street Tunnel
1976.10
19,470
106
5.8
 
1991
18,298
101
5.0
 
1994
13,830
80
4.0
a.m.
1997
14,667
88
4.4
a.m.
1998.10.21
19,297
88
4.4
a.m.
2004
8,401
61
2.7
         
63rd Street Tunnel
1991
1,969
31
1.5
 
1994
2,331
32
1.6
a.m.
1997
1,878
23
1.2
a.m.
1998.10.21
1,146
48
2.4
         
PATH World Trade Center
1976.10
20,960
79
5.1
 
1982
27,500
103
6.6
 
1991
21,507
112
7.2
 
1994
20,519
97
6.2
a.m.
1997
18,503
70
4.5
a.m.
1998.10.21
18,182
78
5.0
a.m.
2004
8,570
64
4.2
         
PATH 33rd Street
1976.10
9,979
91
5.9
 
1991
12,674
91
5.9
 
1994
10,901
78
5.0
a.m.
1997
11,076
101
6.5
a.m.
1998.10.21
8,968
61
3.9
a.m.
2004
10,746
70
4.5
Notes: Large-profile (BMT / IND) car lengths: Most BMT / IND cars are 18.35 meters (60' 2 ½") long, but R-44, R-46, R-68 and R-68A cars are 22.86 meters (75') long. These cars accounted for 25 percent of the fleet size in 1982, 39 percent in 1988 and 1994, and 51 percent in 2004. Therefore, composite lengths of 19.48 meters (1982), 20.11 meters (1988, 1994) and 20.67 meters (2004) have been used to calculate pass/meter of vehicle length. The 22.86-meter (75') cars are not operated on the BMT Canarsie and Jamaica lines.
Average weekday ridership: NYCT: 2,160,000 (1995); 3,400,000 (1976). PATH: 223,000 (1995); 146,000 (1976).
 
Philadelphia
Broad St Subway - north
1976
10,600
84
4.1
Girard, p.m.
2000.8
4,200
39
1.9
         
Broad St Subway - south
1976
3,100
32
1.6
         
Market St Subway - Elevated
1976
9,200
70
4.2
15th St, a.m
2000. 8
5,500
57
3.4
         
Frankford Elevated
1976
9,800
74
4.4
         
Subway-Surface LRT
1956
9,000
68
4.8
 
1976
3,700
51
3.6
 
1994
4,100
* 68
* 4.5
         
PATCO - Lindenwold Line
1976
7,500
109
5.3
 
1994
7,720
** 86
** 4.2
 
1995.10
5,650
63
3.1
Notes:
* estimate, assuming service frequencies as shown in public timetables.
** estimate, assuming same service frequency as operated in 1995.10.
Average weekday ridership: Market-Frankford and Broad Street lines: 308,000 (1995), 304,000 (1976).
Subway-surface lines: 80,000 (1994).
 
Pittsburgh
Smithfield St Bridge (streetcar)
1949
(est) 9,000
75
6.1
 
1976
3,819
75
6.1
         
LRT
1997. 3
2,848
105
4.1
Station Square, p.m.
2000
2,448
102
4.0
 
Portland
Eastside MAX (LRT)
1989.8
1,469
91
3.4
 
1990.10
2,151
134
5.0
 
1994
1,975
123
4.6
 
1996
1,585
122
4.6
 
1998
2,476
113
4.2
Lloyd Center, a.m.
1999.10
2,375
108
4.0
         
Westside MAX (LRT)
1998
1,900
106
4.0
Jefferson / Goose Hollow, a.m.
1999.10
2,380
132
4.9
 
Rochester
Subway
1950
500
62
* 4.1
Note: * estimate, based on 8 cars per hour and assuming 50-foot (15-meter) vehicle length.
 
Sacramento
LRT east
1997
1,727
108
4.7
         
LRT north, Alkalai Flat / La Valentina, a.m.
1993.2
2,050
102
4.4
LRT north
1997
1,600
100
4.3
LRT north, Alkalai Flat / La Valentina, a.m.
2000.7
1,600
100
4.3
 
St. Louis
MetroLink LRT
1996
(est) 2,500
* 140
* 5.0
Note: * estimate, assuming 7 percent peak traffic share, 2-car trains and service frequency as shown in public timetable.
 
Salt Lake City
TRAX (LRT), Ballpark, a.m.
2000.8
1,400
82
3.6
 
San Diego
South (Blue) Line LRT
1981
600
100
4.3
Pacific Fleet, a.m.
1993.2
975
65
2.8
South (Blue) Line LRT
1996
1,757
84
3.7
a.m.
1999.8 - 2000.3
2,015
84
3.7
p.m.
"
1,966
82
3.6
         
East (Orange) Line LRT
1997
1,200
100
4.3
a.m.
1999.8 - 2000.3
1,174
84
3.7
p.m.
"
780
71
3.0
 
San Francisco
BART, Transbay Tube
1977.6
8,016
82
3.8
 
1994
14,881
88
4.1
a.m.
1999
16,700
93
4.3
         
BART, Mission St Subway
1977.6
6,510
77
3.5
a.m.
1995
8,069
62
2.9
         
Concord - Daly City
1994
7,349
92
4.3
Fremont - Daly City
 
4,571
91
4.3
Richmond - Daly City
 
3,713
93
4.4
Richmond - Fremont
 
2,004
83
3.9
         
southbound from Ashby, a.m.
1995
4,400
63
2.9
southbound from Rockridge, a.m.
1995
7,627
94
4.4
northbound to Lake Merritt, a.m.
1995
6,413
75
3.5
         
Muni, Market St - Surface (streetcar)
1977.6
4,914
72
5.1
F Line, Van Ness, a.m.
1999.7
409
41
3.3
         
Market St Subway
1983
6,340
102
4.6
Van Ness, a.m.
1999.6
3,870
90
4.1
Van Ness, p.m.
1999.7
6,100
102
4.6
Average weekday ridership: Muni Metro: 124,000 (1995).
 
San Jose
LRT south, Technology Center, a.m.
1993.2
931
67
2.5
LRT south
1997
1,327
95
3.5
 
Toronto
Queen East (streetcar)
1978
9,000
64
4.5
         
Yonge
1960
32,220
144
8.3
 
1974
36,000
214
* 11.6
 
1978
32,000
152
8.0
         
Yonge-University
1976.10
(est) 22,871
109
5.7
Yonge-University-Spadina
1994
26,908
187
8.2
Bloor, a.m.
1999
23,938
173
7.6
         
Spadina
1980.2
10,427
64
2.8
         
Danforth
1976.10
(est) 22,739
172
7.6
Bloor
"
(est) 21,481
163
7.2
Bloor-Danforth
1994
21,050
159
7.0
Sherbourne, a.m.
1999
19,767
143
6.3
         
Scarborough ALRT, Lawrence East, a.m.
1999
3,308
55
4.5
Notes: * based on composite vehicle length of 18.52 m; 21 percent of the 1974 Yonge-University fleet was 22.7-m cars, and the remainder was 17.41-m cars.
Average weekday ridership: subway lines: 838,000 (1994); 693,000 (1976).
See under “Notes” below re. Canadian Transit Handbook, Second Edition.
 
Vancouver, BC
Skytrain
1994
6,932
69
5.6
See under “Notes” below re. Canadian Transit Handbook, Second Edition.
 
Washington, DC
Blue Line, Potomac Tunnel
1980
(est) 13,000
108
4.7
Eastern Market
"
(est) 8,000
146
6.3
         
Blue / Orange Line
1994
15,300
   
- west, Rosslyn
1997
16,400
117
5.0
- west, Rosslyn, a.m.
2000.6
15,800
113
4.8
- west, Foggy Bottom, p.m.
 
14,600
106
4.5
- east, Federal Center SW, a.m.
 
10,300
97
4.1
- east, L’Enfant Plaza, p.m.
 
10,400
100
4.3
         
Orange Line - west, Court House
1997
12,200
122
5.2
a.m.
2000.6
10,400
113
4.8
         
Red Line, Union Station
1980
(est) 12,000
67
2.9
Red Line
1994
11,700
98
4.2
- northeast, Union Station, a.m.
2000.6
11,800
98
4.2
Judiciary Square, p.m.
"
11,700
98
4.2
- northwest, Dupont Circle
1997
11,500
115
4.9
a.m.
2000.6
12,300
103
4.4
Farragut North, p.m.
"
10,900
91
3.9
         
Green / Yellow Line
1994
7,500
94
4.1
- south, L’Enfant Plaza, a.m.
2000.6
8,100
101
4.4
p.m.
2000.6
7,400
93
4.1
         
Green Line - Maryland section
1997
2,933
109
4.7
- Central section
1997
2,500
63
2.7
- north, Mt. Vernon Square, a.m.
2000.6
4,200
105
4.3
p.m.
2000.6
3,900
98
4.2
         
Yellow Line, L’Enfant Plaza
1997
4,300
110
4.8
a.m.
2000.6
5,000
125
5.3
p.m.
2000.6
4,800
120
5.1
Median Value - Passengers Per Meter of Vehicle Length
MEDIAN - HOV AND BUSWAY SERVICES (1985 - 1997 data only)
2.9
excluding Ottawa
2.9
   
MEDIAN - HEAVY RAIL (1994-1997 data only)
5.7
excluding Boston, México, Montréal, New York and Toronto
4.1
   
MEDIAN - LIGHT RAIL (1994 - 1997 data only)
4.1
excluding Boston
4.1
 
Notes
The "passengers per meter of vehicle length" standard for peak-period vehicle occupancy, which places all systems and modes on an equal footing, was suggested by Parkinson and Fisher (1996).
Most railcar widths fall within the range of 2.5 - 2.8 meters. Significantly wider vehicles operate in:
 
Atlanta, San Francisco – BART
3.20m
Toronto
3.15m
Baltimore -Metro Subway, Miami
3.11m
Washington, DC
3.09m
New York - BMT/IND, Philadelphia - Broad Street
3.05m
 
The standard 100-inch width for U.S. transit buses is about 2.5 meters.
México Metro- Line 2 carried the "highest current" vehicle occupancy level in North America: 3.8 pass / m2 of gross floor space. But New York (IRT)-Lexington Ave Express and Boston-Orange Line carried 3.7 pass / m2 in 1976, as did Toronto-Yonge Subway in 1974. The 1982 figure for New York (IND) Queens line would have exceeded 3.8 pass / m2, unless R-44/46 stock (more than 1,000 cars at the time) worked a disproportionately large share of IND Queens trains.
The median for both heavy rail and light rail -- outside the five most crowded and congested urban centers -- is 40 percent higher than the median for HOV, busway, and freeway-express bus services. The rail median is higher than the rapid-bus maximum (3.7, excluding Ottawa). It should be noted that the average railcar is not 40 percent wider than the average bus. (A series of case studies by Tennyson (1989) found that rail would attract 34-43 percent greater ridership given equivalent service conditions.)
The Canadian Transit Handbook, Second Edition, Table 8.2 (page 8-21), presents “Maximum Observed Volumes on Selected Transit Services.” The entry for “Toronto-Yonge,” which is not dated, states that 28 “Units/hr” (i.e. vehicles per hour) arrried 35,170 “Psgrs/hr.” However, the following page (8-21) contains this statement:
. . . the 35,000 passengers per shown or the Toronto Yonge Street Subway in Table 8.2 is actually a rate projected on the basis of the peak 20-minute observation (Canadian Transit Handbook, Second Edition 1985, p. 8-22).
This suggests, but does not establish, that some of the data presented above for Canadian systems might be passenger flow rates rather than volumes.
 
Acknowledgments
The author expresses sincere appreciation to the following individuals who kindly responded to requests for data: Doug Allen (Dallas Area Rapid Transit), Maria Batista (Miami-Dade Transit Agency), Bill Capps (Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority), Alan H. Castaline (Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority), Dave Colquhoun (Calgary Transit), Jerry Eddy (Regional Transportation District), Wilson Fernandez (Miami-Dade Transit Agency), Ronald L. Freeland (Maryland Mass Transit Administration), Joel B. Freilich (Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority), Robert W. Gower (Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority), James J. Hughes (Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority), Larry A. Humiston (San Diego Trolley, Inc), Peter Janas (Toronto Transit Commission), Clarence W. Marsella (Regional Transportation District), Frank T. Martin (Metro-Dade Transit Agency), Brian Matthews (Regional Transportation District), William J. Mattock (Port Authority of Allegheny County), Conrad R. Misek (Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority), Paul O'Brien (Sacramento Regional Transit District), Simon Richard (Société de transport de la Communauté urbaine de Montréal), Jake Satin-Jacobs (Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority), William F. Schmidt (Port Authority Transit Corporation), Roger Snoble (Dallas Area Rapid Transit), Edson L. Tennyson, PE, Scott Vetare (Port Authority of Allegheny County).
 
References
Assessment of Rush Period Rail Service Levels. 2000. Washington, DC: Office of Operations Planning and Administrative Support, Department of Operations, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority.
Canadian Transit Handbook, Second Edition. 1985. Ottawa: Canadian Urban Transit Association (CUTA) and Roads and Transportation Association of Canada (RTAC).
Chandra, Thusitha. 2007. 2004 Hub Bound Travel Report. New York: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council.
Charles River Associates, Inc., with assistance from Herbert S. Levinson. 1988. Characteristics of Urban Transportation Demand - An Update. (Prepared for Urban Mass Transportation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation.) Boston.
De Leuw, Cather & Company. 1964. Report to Automobile Club of Southern California on Public Transportation in Los Angeles. Chicago.
Demery, Leroy W., Jr. 1994. Supply-Side Analysis and Verification of Ridership Forecasts for Mass Transit Capital Projects. Journal of the American Planning Association 60, 3:355-371.
Demoro, Harre W. 1971. Seattle Trolley Coaches (Interurbans Special 54). Glendale, CA: Interurbans.
Highway Capacity Manual (Special Report 87). 1965. Washington, DC: Highway Research Board, National Research Council.
Highway Capacity Manual (Special Report 209). 1985. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.
Homberger, Wolfgang S. 1967. “Characteristics of Mass Transit Systems.” In: Homberger, Wolfgang S. (ed), Urban Mass Transit Planning. Berkeley: Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, University of California, Berkeley.
Institute of Transportation Engineers. 1988. The Effectiveness of High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities. Washington, DC.
Levinson, Herbert S., and Kevin R. St. Jacques. 1998. Bus Lane Capacity Revisited. Paper presented at Transportation Research Board annual meeting, January 1998.
Medveczky, George. 1992. Hub-Bound Travel 1991. New York: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council.
Ong, Joe R. 1923. A Report on Some of the Problems of Operation of the Los Angeles Railway. Los Angeles.
Parkinson, Tom, and Ian Fisher. 1996. Rail Transit Capacity (Transit Cooperative Research Program Report No 13). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.
Pushkarev, Boris S.; Jeffrey M. Zupan, and Robert S. Cumella. 1982. Urban Rail in America: An Exploration of Criteria for Fixed-Guideway Transit. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Rail Fleet Management Plan. 1998. Miami: Miami-Dade Transit Agency.
Tennyson, E. L. 1989. Impact on Transit Patronage of Cessation or Inauguration of Rail Service. In Transportation Research Record 1221. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.
Transit Development Program 1999. 1999. Miami: Miami-Dade Transit Agency.
Transitways. 1989. New York: American Public Transit Association.
Turnbull, Katherine F. and James W. Hanks, Jr. 1990. A Description of High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities in North America. College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System.
Walker, James W., Jr. (ed.). 1977. The Yellow Cars of Los Angeles (Interurbans Special 43). Glendale, CA: Interurbans.
Werner, Alexander Y. 2001. 1998 Hub-Bound Travel. New York: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council.
Wilbur Smith & Associates. 1970. The Potential for Bus Rapid Transit. Detroit: Automobile Manufacturers Association.
 
Document History
Revised: 25 October 2002.
Rochester Subway data added: 18 April 2005.
2004 New York City data added: 6 October 2007.
 
This tabulation was prepared by Leroy W. Demery, Jr., who apologizes for errors and omissions.