Japan High-Speed Rail Passenger Traffic Statistics
 
We present annual passenger traffic statistics for high-speed railway lines in Japan in the tables and figures below. This compilation extends from 1964, when Japan opened the world’s first dedicated high speed rail service, to the most recent years for which data are available.
Tables and Figures (scroll down):
Table 1: Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics - Summary (from 1964)
Figure 1: Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics - Summary
Table 2: Tōkaidō and San-yō Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics - Summary (1982 - 1986)
Table 3: Tōkaidō Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics (from 1987)
Table 4: San-yō Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics (from 1987)
Table 5: JR-East Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics - Summary
Table 6: Tōhoku Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics
Table 7: Jōetsu Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics
Table 8: Hokuriku Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics
Table 9: Kyūshū Shinkansen Kagoshima Route Passenger Traffic Statistics
Figure 2: Tōkaidō Shinkansen and Shinkansen System - Annual Passengers
Figure 3: Tōkaidō Shinkansen and Shinkansen System - Traffic Density
 
Japan’s dedicated high-speed rail lines are labeled shinkansen ( 新幹線 ). These have tracks built to international standard gauge (1,435mm / 4’8½") rather than the Japanese standard, 1,067mm / 4’8½." Shinkansen translates as "new trunk line." This, strictly speaking, refers to the infrastructure but is recognized widely as a virtual brand name.
(The official service category is 特急, tokkyū, "Limited-Express," often translated as "Super Express." We note that, in Japanese-language publications, the term 弾丸列車, dangan ressha, "Bullet Train," is conspicuous by its absence.)
Shinkansen lines currently in operation are (in order of opening):
Tōkaidō Shinkansen ( 東海道新幹線 ): The eastern segment of the Tōkyō – Fukuoka shinkansen line. It extends between Tōkyō Station and Ōsaka (Shin-Ōsaka Station), and is operated by the Central japan Railway Company (JR-Central). It was opened on October 1, 1964.
San-yō Shinkansen ( 山陽新幹線 ): The western segment of the Tōkyō – Fukuoka shinkansen line. It extends between Ōsaka (Shin-Ōsaka Station) and Fukuoka (Hakata Station), and is operated by the West Japan Railway Company (JR-West). It was opened in two stages during 1972-1975.
Tōhoku Shinkansen ( 東北新幹線 ): This line extends northward from Tōkyō to Hachinohe, and is operated by the East Japan Railway Company (JR-East). It was opened in four stages during 1982-2002.
An extension from Hachinohe to Aomori (Shin-Aomori Station), 81.8 km / 50.7 mi, is under construction. Opening is planned for December 2010.
Two mini-shinkansen ( ミニ新幹線 ) lines serve as "branches" of the Tōhoku Shinkansen. These are segments of conventional line, converted to standard gauge, that are worked by small-profile high-speed trains capable of operating at full speed on dedicated shinkansen lines.
The Yamagata Shinkansen ( 山形新幹線 ) diverges at Fukushima and extends to Yamagata and Shinjō. Service opened on July 1, 1992.
The Akita Shinkansen ( ミニ新幹線 ) diverges at Morioka and extends to Akita. Service opened on March 22, 1997.
Passenger traffic statistics presented below for the are inclusive of passengers carried aboard Akita Shinkansen and Yamagata Shinkansen trains while working on the Tōhoku Shinkansen.
Jōetsu Shinkansen ( 上越新幹線 ): This line diverges from the Tōhoku Shinkansen at Ōmiya, and extends to Niigata. It is operated by the East Japan Railway Company (JR-East), and was opened on November 15, 1982.
Hokuriku Shinkansen ( 北陸新幹線 ): This line diverges from the Jōetsu Shinkansen at Takasaki and extends to Nagano. It is operated by the East Japan Railway Company (JR-East), and was opened on October 1, 1997. An extension from Nagano to Kanazawa, 228.0 km / 141.4 mi, is under construction. Opening is planned for December 2014.
Kyūshū Shinkansen ( 九州新幹線 ): This line extends between Yatsushiro (Shin-Yatsushiro Station) and Kagoshima (Kagoshima-Chūō Station). It was opened on March 13, 2004, and is operated by the Kyūshū Railway Company (JR-Kyūshū). It is the first stage of a shinkansen line between Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Yatsushiro and Kagoshima. The remaining segment, Fukuoka (Hakata Station) – Kumamoto – Shin-Yatsushiro, 103.5 km / 64.2 mi, is under construction. Opening is planned for March 2011. Trains will operate through between Ōsaka and Kagoshima.
In the tables below, the years correspond to Japanese fiscal years, which start on April 1 (e.g. "2010" pertains to the calendar interval April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011). Line length statistics are as at the end of the (fiscal) year, with exceptions as noted.
"Average travel distance" statistics are derived as the quotient of "annual passenger-kilometers" and "annual passengers."
"Annual passenger traffic density" statistics are derived as the quotient of annual passenger-kilometers and route length. As we have explained previously (here), this statistic is expressed in "passenger-kilometers per kilometer of system length (or: line length)." In some cases, passenger-kilometer data for the most recent year has been published but passenger traffic data are pending. In such cases, we have calculated annual passenger traffic density but have left the "annual passenger traffic" and "average travel distance" entries blank.
In "summary" tables, passengers who travel on more than one shinkansen line are counted only once. In other words, the "annual passenger traffic" statistic in "summary" tables for a given year does not coincide with the sum of "annual passenger traffic" statistics for individual shinkansen lines.
 
 
Table 1: Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics - Summary
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
1964
515.4 / 319.5
11.0
355.1 / 220.1
18.2
1965
"
31.0
343.9 / 213.2
20.7
1966
"
43.8
330.9 / 205.2
28.1
1967
"
55.3
324.2 / 201.0
34.8
1968
"
65.9
319.1 / 197.8
40.8
1969
"
71.6
318.8 / 197.6
44.3
         
1970
"
84.6
329.6 / 204.3
54.1
1971
"
85.4
313.9 / 194.6
52.0
1972
676.3 / 419.3
109.9
308.0 / 191.0
50.0
1973
"
128.1
304.4 / 188.7
57.7
1974
"
133.2
305.3 / 189.3
60.1
1975
1,069.1 / 662.8
152.7
349.1 / 216.5
49.9
1976
"
143.5
335.6 / 208.1
45.0
1977
"
126.8
332.7 / 206.3
39.5
1978
"
123.7
332.1 / 205.9
38.4
1979
"
124.0
330.5 / 204.9
38.3
         
1980
"
126.0
331.7 / 205.6
39.1
1981
"
126.0
331.1 / 205.3
39.0
1982
1,803.8 / 1,118.4
143.0
322.4 / 199.9
25.6
1983
"
161.0
313.4 / 194.2
28.0
1984
"
164.0
309.9 / 192.1
28.2
1985
1,831.5 / 1,135.5
180.0
307.9 / 190.9
30.3
1986
"
183.0
305.7 / 189.5
30.5
1987
"
218.0
263.3 / 163.3
31.3
1988
"
241.0
267.0 / 165.5
35.1
1989
"
250.3
263.5 / 163.4
36.0
         
1990
"
276.5
261.0 / 161.8
39.4
1991
1,835.1 / 1,137.8
293.6
252.8 / 156.7
40.4
1992
"
295.1
247.6 / 153.3
39.8
1993
"
294.3
246.6 / 152.9
39.5
1994
"
281.1
242.8 / 150.5
37.2
1995
"
294.9
240.2 / 148.9
38.6
1996
"
300.1
243.1 / 150.7
39.8
1997
1,952.5 / 1,210.6
303.7
239.8 / 148,7
37.3
1998
"
304.6
233.2 / 144.6
36.4
1999
"
301.1
229.9 / 142.5
35.5
 
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
2000
"
304.2
233.9 / 145.0
36.4
2001
"
306.8
235.7 / 146.1
37.0
2002
2,049.1 / 1,270.4
302.8
236.3 / 146.5
34.9
2003
"
306.5
238.2 / 147.7
35.6
2004
2,175.9 / 1,349.1
314.0
237.2 / 147.0
34.2
2005
"
326.5
238.7 / 148.0
35.8
2006
"
329.5
241.1 / 149.5
36.5
2007
"
342.1
242.1 / 150.1
38.1
2008
"
   
37.5
Notes for Table 1:
Service opened October 1, 1964. Passenger traffic data for FY 1964 pertain to the interval October 1, 1964 - March 31, 1965. Passenger traffic density statistic scaled up to annual rate.
Extension Ōsaka (Shin-Ōsaka station) – Okayama opened March 15, 1972 (i.e. 16 days before the end of FY 1971). Added to cumulative line length in table above from FY 1972.
Extension Okayama – Fukuoka (Hakata station) opened March 10, 1975 (i.e. 21 days before the end of FY 1974). Added to line length from 1975.
Extension Tōkyō (Ueno station) – Ōmiya opened March 14, 1985 (i.e. 17 days before the end of FY 1984). Added to line length from 1985.
Initial segment of Kyūshū Shinkansen Kagoshima Route opened March 13, 2004 (i.e. 18 days before the end of FY 2003). Added to line length from 2004.
 
Figure 1: Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics - Summary
(passengers per year, millions)
(passenger-km per km of line length per year, millions)
 
 
Table 2: Tōkaidō and San-yō Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics - Summary
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
See Table 1 for years 1972-1981
1982
1,069.1 / 662.8
125.0
331.9 / 205.8
38.8
1983
"
128.0
329.6 / 204.3
39.5
1984
"
129.0
327.1 / 202.8
39.5
1985
"
133.0
329.8 / 204.5
41.0
1986
"
135.0
328.1 / 203.5
41.4
Notes for Table 2:
See Table 1 for aggregate passenger traffic data for Tōkaidō Shinkansen and San-yō Shinkansen, 1972-1981.
See Table 3 for Tōkaidō Shinkansen passenger traffic data from 1987.
See Table 4 for San-yō Shinkansen passenger traffic data from 1987.
 
 
Table 3: Tōkaidō Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
See Table 1 for years 1964-1971
No separate data for years 1972-1986; see Table 1 and Table 2
1987
515.4 / 319.5
102.0
314.9 / 195.3
62.3
1988
"
112.0
324.1 / 200.9
70.4
1989
"
117.3
318.9 / 197.7
72.6
         
1990
"
130.0
318.0 / 197.2
80.2
1991
"
134.0
312.2 / 193.6
81.2
1992
"
132.0
308.0 / 191.0
78.9
1993
"
132.0
306.8 / 190.2
78.6
1994
"
128.0
304.0 / 188.5
75.5
1995
"
132.8
299.9 / 185.9
77.3
1996
"
134.2
305.3 / 189.3
79.5
1997
"
134.4
305.8 / 189.6
79.7
1998
"
130.3
302.3 / 187.4
76.5
1999
"
128.4
302.9 / 187.8
75.4
 
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
2000
"
130.5
304.0 / 188.5
77.0
2001
"
132.3
306.8 / 190.2
78.7
2002
"
129.6
305.4 / 189.4
76.8
2003
"
132.1
305.2 / 189.2
78.2
2004
"
136.5
304.3 / 188.7
80.6
2005
"
143.5
305.1 / 189.1
84.9
2006
"
145.3
306.2 / 189.9
86.3
2007
"
151.3
307.6 / 190.7
90.3
2008
"
149.2
308.7 / 191.4
89.3
2009
"
   
82.8
Notes for Table 3:
See Table 1 for Tōkaidō Shinkansen passenger traffic data, 1964-1971.
Passenger traffic data combined with San-yō Shinkansen data for years 1972-1986. See Table 1 (1972-1981) and Table 2 (1982-1986) for aggregate data.
 
 
Table 4: San-yō Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
1987
553.7 / 343.3
54.0
243.6 / 151.0
23.8
1988
"
61.0
242.5 / 150.3
26.7
1989
"
62.2
241.2 / 149.3
27.1
         
1990
"
66.0
243.4 / 150.9
29.0
1991
"
68.0
239.4 / 148.4
29.4
1992
"
68.0
237.7 / 147.3
29.2
1993
"
67.0
239.2 / 148.3
28.9
1994
"
57.0
233.5 / 144.8
24.0
1995
"
63.5
232.4 / 144.1
26.7
1996
"
64.4
240.0 / 148.8
27.9
1997
"
62.8
238.3 / 147.8
27.0
1998
"
60.2
235.1 / 145.7
25.6
1999
"
58.5
232.7 / 144.3
24.6
 
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
2000
"
58.4
236.3 / 146.5
24.9
2001
"
58.2
240.5 / 149.1
25.3
2002
"
56.6
241.6 / 149.8
24.7
2003
"
57.5
242.0 / 150.0
25.1
2004
"
58.6
240.5 / 149.1
25.5
2005
"
60.6
245.2 / 152.0
26.8
2006
"
61.0
248.6 / 154.1
27.4
2007
"
63.4
251.2 / 155.7
28.8
2008
"
62.9
252.5 / 156.5
28.7
2009
"
58.6
253.0 / 156.8
26.8
Notes for Table 4:
Passenger traffic data combined with Tōkaidō Shinkansen data for years 1972-1986. See Table 1 (1972-1981) and Table 2 (1982-1986) for aggregate data.
 
 
Table 5: JR-East Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics - Summary
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
1982
734.7 / 455.5
18.1
255.5 / 158.4
9.8
1983
"
33.7
244.7 / 151.7
11.2
1984
"
35.4
326.3 / 202.3
15.7
1985
762.4 / 472.7
46.7
249.2 / 154.5
15.3
1986
"
48.0
253.1 / 156.9
15.9
1987
"
62.0
195.7 / 121.3
15.9
1988
"
68.0
195.0 / 120.9
17.4
1989
"
71.3
190.1 / 117.9
17.8
         
1990
"
80.5
183.5 / 113.8
19.4
1991
766.0 / 474.9
91.6
175.7 / 109.0
21.0
1992
"
95.1
170.9 / 106.0
21.2
1993
"
95.3
168.3 / 104.4
20.9
1994
"
96.1
166.8 / 103.4
20.9
1995
"
98.9
164.3 / 101.9
21.2
1996
"
102.1
161.8 / 100.3
21.6
1997
883.4 / 547.7
112.4
149.0 / 92.4
19.0
1998
"
123.7
141.2 / 87.5
19.8
1999
"
124.4
134.5 / 83.4
18.9
 
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
2000
"
125.6
140.7 / 87.2
20.0
2001
"
126.5
140.3 / 87.0
20.1
2002
980.0 / 607.6
126.4
144.6 / 89.7
18.6
2003
"
127.3
147.3 / 91.3
19.1
2004
"
125.3
146.8 / 91.0
18.8
2005
"
128.0
147.4 / 91.4
19.3
2006
"
130.1
149.0 / 92.4
19.8
2007
"
133.3
149.5 / 92.7
20.3
2008
"
129.6
149.0 / 92.4
19.7
2009
"
   
18.5
Notes for Table 5:
Tōhoku Shinkansen service opened June 23, 1982. Jōetsu Shinkansen service opened November 15, 1982. Passenger traffic density statistic scaled up to annual rate.
Extension Tōkyō (Ueno station) – Ōmiya opened March 14, 1985 (i.e. 17 days before the end of FY 1984). Added to cumulative line length in table above from FY 1985.
 
 
Table 6: Tōhoku Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
1982
465.2 / 288.4
-
 
10.4
1983
"
-
 
12.9
1984
"
-
 
13.2
1985
492.9 / 305.6
-
 
16.4
1986
"
-
 
16.7
1987
"
45.2
197.5 / 122.5
18.1
1988
"
49.1
197.1 / 122.2
19.6
1989
"
51.5
192.1 / 119.1
20.1
         
1990
"
57.7
185.2 / 114.8
21.7
1991
496.5 / 307.8
65.7
178.0 / 110.4
23.5
1992
"
68.4
173.1 / 107.3
23.8
1993
"
68.6
170.4 / 105.6
23.6
1994
"
69.5
169.2 / 104.9
23.7
1995
"
71.7
166.8 / 103.4
24.1
1996
"
74.0
164.3 / 101.9
24.5
1997
"
76.8
159.8 / 99.1
24.7
1998
"
79.0
152.9 / 94.8
24.3
1999
"
79.3
153.1 / 94.9
24.5
 
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
2000
"
80.1
153.5 / 95.2
24.8
2001
"
80.2
153.0 / 94.9
24.7
2002
593.1 / 367.7
80.4
159.2 / 98.7
21.6
2003
"
80.9
164.0 / 101.7
22.4
2004
"
80.4
166.1 / 103.0
22.5
2005
"
81.7
165.1 / 102.4
22.7
2006
"
82.9
167.5 / 103.8
23.4
2007
"
84.8
168.3 / 104.4
24.1
2008
"
82.2
167.7 / 104.0
23.2
Notes for Table 6:
Tōhoku Shinkansen service opened June 23, 1982. Passenger traffic data for FY 1982 pertain to the interval June 23, 1982 - March 31, 1983. Passenger traffic density statistic scaled up to annual rate.
"Annual passenger traffic" data combined with Jōestu Shinkansen data for years 1982-1986. See Table 5 for aggregate data.
Extension Tōkyō (Ueno station) – Ōmiya opened March 14, 1985 (i.e. 17 days before the end of FY 1984). Added to cumulative line length in table above from FY 1985.
 
 
Table 7: Jōetsu Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
1982
269.5 / 167.1
-
 
8.7
1983
"
-
 
8.4
1984
"
-
 
9.2
1985
"
-
 
1.29
1986
"
-
 
12.7
1987
"
16.8
190.9 / 118.3
11.9
1988
"
18.9
189.4 / 117.4
13.3
1989
"
19.8
185.0 / 114.7
13.6
         
1990
"
22.8
179.3 / 111.1
15.2
1991
"
26.0
170.0 / 105.4
16.4
1992
"
26.7
165.3 / 102.5
16.4
1993
"
26.6
163.0 / 101.1
16.1
1994
"
26.6
160.4 / 99.4
15.8
1995
"
27.3
157.6 / 97.7
15.9
1996
"
28.0
155.3 / 96.3
16.2
1997
"
30.5
131.3 / 81.4
14.9
1998
"
35.6
128.8 / 79.9
17.0
1999
"
35.8
128.1 / 79.4
17.0
 
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
2000
"
36.1
126.7 / 78.6
17.0
2001
"
36.6
127.0 / 78.7
17.2
2002
"
36.4
128.1 / 79.4
17.3
2003
"
36.6
127.0 / 78.7
17.2
2004
"
35.3
119.8 / 74.3
15.7
2005
"
36.7
125.0 / 77.5
17.0
2006
"
37.3
125.4 / 77.7
17.3
2007
"
38.3
125.7 / 77.9
17.9
2008
"
37.4
125.9 / 78.1
17.5
Notes for Table 7:
Jōetsu Shinkansen service opened November 15, 1982. Passenger traffic data for FY 1982 pertain to the interval November 15, 1982 - March 31, 1983. Passenger traffic density statistic scaled up to annual rate.
"Annual passenger traffic" data combined with Tōhoku Shinkansen data for years 1982-1986. See Table 5 for aggregate data.
 
 
Table 8: Hokuriku Shinkansen Passenger Traffic Statistics
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
1997
117.4 / 72.8
5.1
92.4 / 57.3
8.0
1998
"
9.1
87.6 / 54.3
6.8
1999
"
9.2
86.4 / 53.6
6.8
         
2000
"
9.4
85.5 / 53.0
6.9
2001
"
9.6
84.8 / 52.6
6.9
2002
"
9.6
"
6.9
2003
"
9.7
84.9 / 52.6
7.0
2004
"
9.6
83.9 / 52.0
6.8
2005
"
9.6
83.0 / 51.5
6.8
2006
"
9.9
82.7 / 51.3
6.9
2007
"
10.1
82.1 / 50.9
7.1
2008
"
10.0
81.6 / 50.6
7.0
Notes for Table 8:
Hokuriku Shinkansen service opened October 1, 1997. Passenger traffic data for FY 1997 pertain to the interval October 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998. Passenger traffic density statistic scaled up to annual rate.
 
 
Table 9: Kyūshū Shinkansen Kagoshima Route Passenger Traffic Statistics
Year
Length
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
(millions)
Average
Travel
Distance
(km / mi)
Annual
Passenger
Traffic
Density
(millions)
2003
126.8 / 78.6
0.3
111.5 / 69.1
4.6
2004
"
3.4
119.6 / 74.2
3.2
2005
"
3.9
103.9 / 64.4
3.2
2006
"
4.0
102.9 / 63.8
3.3
2007
"
4.2
103.3 / 64.1
3.4
2008
"
4.2
101.3 / 62.8
3.4
Notes for Table 9:
Service opened March 13, 2004. Passenger traffic data for FY 2003 pertain to the interval March 13 - March 31, 2004. Passenger traffic density statistic scaled up to annual rate.
 
Figures 2 and 3 (below) illustrate the degree to which summary shinkansen passenger traffic statistics are dominated by Tōkaidō Shinkansen. Figure 2 pertains to annual passenger statistics, and Figure 3 pertains to passenger traffic density.
 
 
Figure 2: Tōkaidō Shinkansen and Shinkansen System - Annual Passengers
(passengers per year, millions)
 
At 2005, the Tōkaidō Shinkansen accounted for less than 24 percent of shinkansen line length, but carried nearly 44 percent of all shinkansen passengers.
 
Figure 3: Tōkaidō Shinkansen and Shinkansen System - Traffic Density
(passenger-km per km of line length per year, millions)
 
At 2005, the Tōkaidō Shinkansen accounted for less than 24 percent of shinkansen line length, but carried more than 56 percent of all shinkansen passenger km. The annual traffic density for the Tōkaidō Shinkansen was nearly 2.5 times greater than for all shinkansen lines considered in aggregate.
We shall update these tables as on occasion as additional data becomes available.
 
References:
KTX vs 新幹線 徹底比較(仮)[KTX vs shinkansen tettei hikaru (kari)].
(The authors express sincere appreciation to the compiler of this very useful webpage.)
 
九州のうんゆ 2010年1月 Kyūshū no unyu, 2010 January. 2010. Fukuoka: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Kyushu District Transport Bureau.
 
数字でみる鉄道2008 Sûji de miru tetsudō 2008. 2008. Tōkyō: Un-yu Keizai Kenkyû Kikō. Also earlier issues.