Table 4.1: Metro and Suburban Rail
U.S., Canada, Western Europe and Australasia
A          Aachen - Ayr     (4.1.1, 2008.6)
City and Country
Population Served
System Length, km / mi
Annual Passengers (million)
Average Travel Distance, km / mi
Annual Traffic Density (million)
           
Aachen - AVV (rly)
DE
900,000
67 / 42
5
15 / 9
1.1
Aberdeen - FSR
GB
u 200,000
23 / 14
     
Adelaide - TA - 1961
AU
590,000
240 / 150
14.6
13.0 / 8.1
0.8
1971
 
840,000
155 / 96
13.4
12.8 / 7.9
1.1
1981
 
930,000
143 / 89
13.8
14.8 / 9.2
1.4
1991
 
1,020,000
118.7 / 73.6
9.9
11.2 / 6.9
0.9
2001
 
1,110,000
8.0
11 / 7
0.7
2006
 
1,139,000
11.7
1.1
Adelaide suburban rail lines arranged anti- (counter) clockwise (north, west, south).
Gawler Central - 1989
   
42.2 / 26.2
3.9
11 / 7
1.0
Outer Harbour
   
21.9 / 13.6
     
Grange
   
13.0 / 8.1
     
Outer Harbour + Grange - 1989
   
27.4 / 17.0
2.9
11 / 7
1.2
Noarlunga Centre
   
30.2 / 18.7
     
Tonsley
   
13.0 / 8.1
     
Noarlunga Ctr + Tonsley - 1989
   
34.1 / 21.1
4.2
11 / 7
1.4
Belair
   
21.5 / 13.3
1.1
11 / 7
0.6
Agrigento - FS
IT
u 50,000
78 / 48
     
Airolo - FR - fn - 1955
CH
 
1.369 / 0.8
0.03
1.369 / 0.8
0.03
1970
   
0.02
0.02
1984
   
0.03
0.03
1997
   
0.04
0.04
Alacant (Alicante) - RENFE
ES
700,000
190 / 118
4
20 / 12
0.4
Albuquerque (NM) - Phase 1
US
740,000
82 / 51
0.5
20 / 12
0.1
** Phase 2
 
880,000
166 / 103
1.3
60 / 35
0.4
Alessandria - FS
IT
u 90,000
263 / 163
     
Alt St. Johann - DUI - fn - 1940
CH
 
1.195 / 0.7
0.08
1.195 / 0.7
0.08
1955
   
0.1
0.1
1970
   
0.2
0.2
1984
   
0.4
0.4
1997
 
@ 1,000
0.3
0.3
Amiens - SNCF
FR
170,000
490 / 300
     
Amsterdam - NS
NL
720,000
41 / 25
35
3.5 / 2.2
3
Netherlands - 1916
 
6,433,000
3,863 / 2,395
76.1
23.4 / 14.5
0.5
1950
 
10,027,000
3,197 / 1,982
158.3
39 / 24
1.9
1955
 
10,680,000
3,178 / 1,970
184.5
41 / 25
2.4
1970
 
12,958.000
3,148 / 1,952
187.6
42.5 / 26.4
2.5
1985
 
14,454,000
2,824 / 1,751
208
44.3 / 27.5
3.3
1998
 
15,654,000
2,808 / 1,741
321
46.3 / 28.7
5.3
2006
 
16,491,000
2,809 / 1,742
328
47 / 29
5.5
Metro - 1984
 
@ 680,000
22.7 / 14.1
27
4 / 2.5
5
Metro/LRT: see Table 3.1
           
Ancona - FS
IT
u 100,000
208 / 129
     
Antwerpen - B
BE
450,000
see Bruxelles / Brussel - Belgium
 
Arezzo - LFI
IT
u 90,000
83.0 / 51.5
     
FS
   
98 / 61
     
Århus - DSB (Aarhus)
DK
280,000
388 / 241
     
HHJ - 2002
   
26.6 / 16.5
1
13 / 8
0.5
see also København - Denmark-West
           
Athina - OSE (Athens)
GR
4,000,000
192.6 / 119.4
     
AM (met)
 
3,100,000
26.4 / 16.4
171
4 / 2
26
Line 2
   
11.0 / 6.8
     
Line 3
   
15.4 / 9.5
     
ISAP (met) - ca. 1962
 
@ 1,850,000
25.6 / 15.9
37
7.6 / 4.7
11
ca. 1974
 
@ 2,540,000
92.3
27
2003
   
151
6.5 / 4.0
38
Atlanta (GA) - * Rly - Canton
US
 
61 / 38
1.0
24 / 15
0.4
Bremen
   
85 / 53
1.1
32 / 20
0.4
Senoia
   
61 / 38
1.6
24 / 15
0.6
Macon Phase 1 - Lovejoy
   
42 / 26
0.8
29 / 18
0.5
Phase 2 - Griffin
   
68 / 42
1.1
35 / 22
0.6
Phase 3 - Macon
   
166 /103
3.2
80 / 50
1.5
Gainesville
   
85 / 53
1.7
32 / 20
0.6
Athens
   
116 / 72
2.7
32 / 20
0.8
Madison
   
108 / 67
0.9
40 / 25
 
metro - 1985
 
@ 1,100,000
41.5 / 25.7
57.7
6.2 / 3.9
9
1990
 
@ 1,200,000
54.0 / 33.5
68.9
8.4 / 5.2
11
2006
 
1,600,000
77.5 / 48.0
69.2
11.4 / 7.1
10
East-West Line
   
24.4 / 15.1
     
North-South Line
   
39.4 / 24.4
     
Northeast Line
   
13.1 / 8.1
     
Proctor Creek Branch
   
2.4 / 1.5
     
Atlantic City (NJ)
US
270,000
u 40,000
see Camden (NJ)
   
Auckland - rly - 1993
NZ
@ 860,000
u 316,000
73.1 / 45.3
1
10 / 6
0.1
2000
 
@ 1,140,000
u 370,000
2.3
0.3
2006
 
1,240,000
u 425,000
74.2 / 46.0
5
0.7
Augsburg - AVV
DE
660,000
158 / 98
     
region
 
1,370,000
939 /582
   
1.3
* S-Bahn
   
350 / 220
     
** Austin - rly
 
900,000
52 / 32
0.6
23 / 14
0.3
Avellino - FS
IT
u 50,000
see Napoli - FS
 
Ayr - FSR
GB
u 50,000
       
Key to Symbols:
* = in planning; ** = under construction.
*** = operated for less than 12 months as noted; traffic density scaled up to annual rate.
@ = population corresponds with historic data year.
u = population within municipal boundary.
 
Notes for Table 4.1
Aachen - AVV: Aachener Verkehrsverbund GmbH (AVV) coordinates public transport services in the region, including part of the regional rail network operated by DB Regional AG, Region Nordrhein-Westfalen, Geschäftsbereich Rheinland. See also Köln.
Adelaide - TA: Suburban railway system length changes:
Dry Creek (Gawler line) – Northfield, 4.3 km / 2.7 mi, closed 1987 July 24.
Dry Creek (Gawler line) – Port Adelaide, 8 km / 5 mi, closed to passengers 1988 May 27.
Salisbury (Gawler line) – Penfield, 1.1 km / 0.7 mi, closed 1991 January 4.
Nurlutta (Gawler line) – GMH Elizabeth, 1.0 km / 0.6 mi, closed to passengers 1992 August 14.
 
Woodville (Outer Harbour / Grange line) – Finsbury Stores, 9 km / 6 mi, closed 1981 September 11.
Port Adelaide Cabin A (Outer Harbour line) – Port Dock, 0.5 km / 0.3 mi, closed 1979 August 17.
Glanville (Outer Harbour line) – Semaphore, 1.3 km / 0.8 mi, closed 1978 October 29.
Osborne Junction (Outer Harbour line) – ICI, 2 km / 14 mi, closed 1980January 1.
 
Albert Park (Grange line) – Hendon, 0.7 km / 0.4 mi, closed 1980 February 1.
 
Hallett Cove (Noarlunga Centre line) – Reynella – Morphett Vale – Hackham – Willunga, 50.2 km / 31.1 mi, closed 1969.
Hallett Cove – Hallett Cove Beach, 1.5 km / 0.9 mi, new line, opened 1974.
Hallett Cove Beach – Christie Downs, 6.0 km / 3.7 mi, new line, opened 1976 January 25.
Christie Downs – Noarlunga Centre, 1.3 km / 0.8 mi, new line, opened 1978 April 2.
Noarlunga Centre – Seaford, 5.5 km / 3.4 mi, opening planned for 2010.
New line Hallet Cove Junction – Noarlunga Centre was not built on the alignment used by the previous line.
 
Belair (Belair line) – Bridgewater, 15.9 km / 9.8 mi, closed 1987 July 26.
Balhannah (Adelaide-Melbourne line) – Mount Pleasant, 33.9 km / 21.0 mi, closed 1963.
Electrification: The leader of the South Australia opposition, Martin Hamilton-Smith (Liberal Party) announced at 2008 January that electrification of the Adelaide suburban railway system would be part of the Liberal Party program at the 2010 March state election. In response, South Australia Premier Mike Rann (Labor Party) said at 2008 January that "electrifying the system would not be responsible economic management."
Then, at 2008 June, the State Treasurer announced an infrastructure development program that included electrification of the railway system and tramway expansion (see Adelaide, Table 4.1). The Gawler, Outer Harbour, Grange and Noarlunga Centre lines will be electrified, using 25kV 50Hz traction current. Diesel traction will be retained on the Belair line pending results of a study on whether to build a new alignment in the Adelaide Hills area. The Adelaide Hills segment of the Adelaide – Melbourne railway is noted for steep gradients.
The Noarlunga Centre line will be the first to be converted to electric traction.
As part of the project, the entire Adelaide suburban railway system will be converted from broad (1,600 mm / 5' 3") to standard (1,435 mm / 4' 8½") gauge.
A "tram-train" service will be operated on the Grange and Outer Harbour lines (see Table 3.1).
Airolo - FR: Funicolare Ritom SA, funicular.
Built as part of FFS (SBB) hydroelectric power development from 1917. Public carrier from 1921. Claimed as the world’s steepest funicular that works as a public carrier. Maximum gradient 87.8 percent (1 in 1.1). Nearest railway station: Ambri-Piotta (FFS).
Albuquerque: "New Mexico Rail Runner Express," commuter rail service. Phase 1, Belen – Albuquerque – Bernalillo (Sandoval County / US 550 station), 82 km / 51 mi, opened in stages 2006 July 14 - 2007 February 2.
Operates Monday-Friday only. Seasonal weekend service operated during 2007, Memorial Day - Labor Day public holidays.
Bus connections to Albuquerque International Sunport (airport) provided from Downtown Albuquerque and Bernalillo County / International Sunport stations. (Annual passenger traffic at the airport was nearly 6.7 million, at 2007.)
Phase 2, Bernalillo – Santa Fe, 84.0 km / 52.1 mi, including 26.5 km / 16.4 mi of new alignment. Opening planned for 2008 December.
Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecasts (500,000 / year for Phase 1; 1.3 million / year for completed line).
Passenger traffic reported at 2007 December (2,200 to 2,500 / "day") implies 600,000 / year.
Alt Sankt Johann - DUI: Chäserrugg Bergbahnen (Drahtseilbahn Unterwasser - Iltios), funicular. Nearest railway stations are Neslau-Neu St. Johann (12 km / 7 mi)and Buchs (SG, 28 km / 18 mi).
Amsterdam - NS: Data pertain to travel on NS lines within the Amsterdam municipal boundary, and were estimated based on Kenworthy et al. (1999).
Netherlands: Data pertain to all passenger rail services operated by NS (and predecessors) throughout the country.
The land area of The Netherlands is 2,586 km2 / 994 sq mi. The country ranks 42nd by area and 43rd by population among European states. Selected comparisons between The Netherlands and states (or subdivisions) located away from Europe:
Country
Subdivision
Area Index
Population Index
US
Massachusetts + Connecticut
97
61
US
Maryland
75
34
US
New Jersey
57
53
The US [federal] state of New Jersey has 57 percent of the land area, and 53 percent of the population size, of The Netherlands.
Schiphollijn: New Amsterdam – Leiden railway line, serving Luchthaven Schiphol (Amsterdam Airport Schiphol), opened in stages 1978-1993. Route length includes 5.8-km / 3.6-mi tunnel beneath airport; Schiphol Centrum station was the first underground railway station in The Netherlands.
(Passenger traffic at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol was more than 46.5 million, at 2006.)
Leiden Centraal – Schiphol Centrum, 15 km / 9 mi: opened 1981 May 31.
Schiphol Centrum – Amsterdam Zuid/WTC, 3 km / 2 mi: opened 1978 December 21. (WTC = "World Trade Center").
Amsterdam Zuid/WTC – Amsterdam RAI, 2 km / 1 mi: opened 1981 May 31.
("RAI" = Amsterdam RAI Exhibition and Congress Centre; "RAI" is an historic reference to Vereniging van Rijwiel- en Automobiel Industrie, the "Union of Bicycle and Automobile Industries," organized in 1893 by bicycle manufacturers to promote trade exhibitions, and renamed RAI in 1900.)
Amsterdam RAI – Weesp, 10 km / 6 mi: opened 1993 May 23.
Schiphol Centrum – Amsterdam Lelylaan – Amsterdam Sloterdijk, 8 km / 5 mi: opened 1986 June 1. Provides direct link between Amsterdam Centraal station and Schiphol Airport.
See also Lelystad (Hanzelijn, Zuiderzeelijn).
Metro / LRT: See "Tramway, Light Railway and LRT" compilation (Table 3.1). Sneltram (LRT) services operate over metro tracks. Disaggregate data for metro and LRT operations are not available.
Arezzo - LFI and FS: See also Firenze - regione.
Århus - DSB: Upgrading of Grenaabanen (Århus – Ryomgard), under construction.
The maximum permitted speed will be lifted from 40-50 km/h / 25-30 mph to 100 km/h / 60 mph. This will permit an increase in commercial speed from 30 km/h / 20 mph) to 75 km/h / 45 mph, and an overall travel time saving of 16 min. Current traffic stated at 800,000 passengers per year.
Atlanta-Rly: "Georgia Rail Passenger Program," in planning.
Regional ("commuter") and intercity services on existing rail alignments. New "Multi-Modal Passenger Terminal" planned for construction in Atlanta business center (adjacent to Five Points metro station). Prospective corridors are arranged anti- (counter-) clockwise, north-west-south-east. Plans call for opening of all corridors by 2015. Aggregate forecast: 10.7 million / year aboard commuter services, 3.1 million / year aboard intercity services, by 2030.
NOTE: The authors emphasize that financing has not been secured, and that significant political obstacles were raised at 2006 and 2007.
Canton: Atlanta – Canton commuter rail service. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (1.031 million / year, by 2030).
Bremen: Atlanta – Bremen commuter rail service. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (1.1 million / year, by 2030).
Senoia: Atlanta – Senoia commuter rail service. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (1.6 million / year, by 2030).
Macon Phase 1 - Lovejoy: Atlanta – Jonesboro – Lovejoy commuter rail service. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (770,000 / year, at 2009).
Phase 2 - Griffin: Extension of Phase 1, Lovejoy – Griffin. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (1.14 million / year, at opening).
Phase 3 - Macon: Extension of Phase 2, Griffin – Macon. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (1.9 million / year, at 2030) and includes intercity traffic (234,000 / year to Columbus, 275,000 / year to Macon, 271,000 / year to Americus and Albany, and 551,000 / year to Savannah, all at 2030).
Gainesville: Atlanta Gainesville commuter rail service. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (1.67 million / year, at 2030) and includes intercity traffic (179,000 / year to Clemson (SC) and Greenville (SC), at 2030).
Athens: Atlanta Lawrenceville (Cedars Road) – Athens commuter rail service. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (2.7 million / year, at 2030).
Madison: Atlanta Madison commuter rail service. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (943,000 / year, at 2030) and includes intercity traffic (145,000 / year to Augusta, at 2030).
Metro: Initial segment opened 1979 June 30. The extension to Airport station, serving Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, was opened on 1988 June 18.
(Annual airport passenger traffic was greater than 84.8 million (at 2006), of which 8.1 million international, 76.3 million domestic and 0.5 million transit.)
Metro expansion, in planning:
North Line: Extension of North Line from North Springs to Windward Parkway 19 km / 12 mi.
The "North Line Alternatives Analysis" was started in 2002. Initial results suggested that "despite growth in the area, land use densities within the corridor were not transit supportive and would need to increase to support a potential expansion of the North Line." This extension was not included in plans current at 2007 December.
West Line: Extension of West Line from Hamilton E. Holmes (previous name: Hightower) to Adamsville/I-285, and bus rapid transit (BRT) service in preferential ("HOV") lanes between Hamilton E. Holmes and Fulton Industrial Boulevard.
Although the metro/BRT plan was identified by the MARTA Board as the "Locally preferred alternative" (LPA) at 2005, plans current at 2007 March outlined BRT exclusively.
Inner Core Alternatives Analysis: Planned peripheral "fixed guideway" lines using railway alignments. The MARTA Board decided at 2006 December that the “primary transit element" would be either light rail transit (LRT) or "modern streetcar." See Table 3.1.
Clifton Corridor: Improved public transport service on existing streets and roads, Lindbergh Center station – Emory University. Known previously as the "C-Loop" segment of the Inner Core.
I-20 East Corridor: Atlanta business center (Garnett station) – South DeKalb – Stonecrest Mall in Interstate-20 motorway alignment. "LPA" identified by the MARTA Board at 2004 December was "dedicated busway." Plans current at 2007 March outlined “BRT.”
Memorial Drive Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Project: former Avondale Mall site – Stone Mountain park-and-ride in Memorial Drive corridor. Opening planned for 2008 December.
Auckland - rly: Suburban rail services managed by Auckland Regional Transport Authority (organized 2004 by Auckland Regional Council). All regional public transport marketed as MAXX.
Suburban rail services operated for many years by New Zealand Railways Department, which was reorganized as New Zealand Railways Corporation (NCRC) in 1981. During privatization, NZRC operations and infrastructure were handed to New Zealand Rail, Ltd., (NZRL), created in 1991. The state ("Crown") retained railway land (through NZRC) but not infrastructure; railway land was leased for a nominal annual payment. NZRL was sold in 1993 and renamed Tranz Rail Holdings Ltd (Tranz Rail) in 1995. Tranz Rail, beset by financial difficulties and public criticism, was sold to the Australian firm Toll Holdings, Ltd., in 2003.
The state renationalized almost all rail infrastructure in 2004. This is managed by NZRC, which has traded as ONTRACK from that time. Toll Rail remains the major rail service operator in New Zealand, and operates passenger services through its subsidiaries Tranz Scenic (intercity) and Tranz Metro (Wellington suburban services).
Auckland and Wellington suburban railway services in were marketed as CityLine from 1985 and CityRail from 1990, and Tranz Metro from 1995. The Auckland Regional Council purchased CityRail suburban rolling stock in 1993 and contracted with NZRL for operation for ten years. The subsequent tender was won by the French undertaking Connex, which traded as Connex Auckland and was renamed Veolia Transport Auckland from 2006. Auckland suburban rail services are marketed under the brand name MAXX.
Suburban rail infrastructure, sold by Trans Rail to the state in 2002, is owned and managed by ONTRACK. ARTA owns rolling stock and most stations, and contracts with Veolia Transport for operation.
DMU (diesel multiple unit) stock was purchased secondhand from Perth (AU) in 1993, where it had been made surplus by electrification of the suburban network. Additional locomotive-worked stock was acquired subsequently from Brisbane, and from the UK.
The new Britomart Transport Centre, which includes an underground rail terminal, was opened on 2003 July 25. This is built near the site of Auckland’s second rail terminal (1885-1930), close to the business center and ferry terminal.
Service improvements include restoration of Sunday rail service with the 2005 October timetable change. Suburban rail service had not been operated on Sundays from the early 1980s.
Project DART ("Developing Auckland's Rail Transport"), a program of improvements to track, stations and signals is currently (2008) in progress, financed by ARTA and managed by ONTRACK.
ARTA has ordered double-deck rolling stock for locomotive-worked trains as a short-term measure. A report dated 2005 included the most recent proposal for electrification of the Auckland suburban rail network (the earliest such proposal dates to 1925). This gained strong support from local authorities. The government announced at mid-2007 that it would provide financing for electrification. Completion is planned by 2013.
Auckland suburban railway passenger traffic forecasts: 10 million / year by 2011, 25 million / year by 2015, 30 million / year by 2029.
Helensville: Extension of MAXX service northward from Wakiatere, in planning. Distance Wakiatere – Kumeu is 8.3 km / 5.1 mi; distance Wakiatere – Kumeu – Helensville is 29.7 km / 18.4 mi.
Previous rail passenger service to Helensville withdrawn from 1980 August 18. Trial restoration of service to Helensville announced at 2007 June; planned for 2008.
Manukatu: Project DART includes a new 1.8-km / 1.1-mi branch, Wiri – Manukau City Centre. Opening planned for 2010.
Onehunga: Branch, Penrose – Onehunga, 3.0 km / 1.9 mi, closed to passengers 1973 April (closed to goods 2006). Reopening announced 2007 March, planned for 2009.
Extension to Auckland Airport, proposed.
(Annual passenger traffic at Auckland Airport was nearly 12.4 million, of which nearly 6.4 million international and nearly 5.1 million domestic, at 2007.)
Hamilton: Southward extension of MAXX service Pukekohe – Hamilton, 86.5 km / 53.6 mi, in planning. This would restore service started as the Waikato Connection from 2000 June 26 but withdrawn from 2001 October 7 (together with long-distance services to Tauranga and Rotorua). The Hamilton suburban service was replaced in part by southward extension of two weekday trains from Papakura–  Pukekohe, 18.2 km / 11.3 mi. These are worked by "Silver Fern" railcars leased from Toll Rail. Traffic forecast for Hamilton suburban rail service: 90 / weekday; 24,000 / year.
Underground city loop: Britomart – Mount Eden, 3.5 km / 2.2 mi, with two intermediate stations, in preliminary planning. This would provide improved service to business center destinations and would also provide increased capacity, because trains would no longer need to reverse direction at Britomart. Completion anticipated by 2025 if approved.
Augsburg-AVV: Augsburger Verkehrsverbund GmbH (AVV) coordinates public transport services in the region, including part of the regional rail network operated by DB Regio AG, Regio Bayerisch-Schwaben. Traffic density statistic for regional network calculated from reported annual pass-km.
S-Bahn: S-Bahn Augsburg, upgrading of existing regional services, in planning. Plans include 9-line network, with system length ca. 350 km / 220 mi, outlined for implementation during 2011-2015. Additional 3 lines, 49 km / 30 mi, planned for operation on (current) goods lines, including line to Flughafen Augsburg (Augsburg Airport).
(Passenger traffic at Augsburg Airport, a regional facility having little commercial service, was 45,000 at 2005.)
Austin - rly: Downtown/Northwest Commuter Rail Service, Austin - Leander, under construction.
Will be worked by Diesel Multiple Unit (DMU) stock. Opening planned for 2008. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (2,000 / weekday, 600,000 / year, initial operating period). Ridership forecast for 2025: 12,000 / weekday.