Table 3.24: Tramway, Light Railway and LRT
U.S, Canada, Western Europe and Australasia
R          Radford - Ryde     (3.24.1, 2008.6)
City and Country
Population Served
System Length, km / mi
Annual Passengers (million)
Average Travel Distance, km / mi
Annual Traffic Density (million)
           
Queens (NY), US (New York City borough): see New York City (separate tabulation)
   
Radford (VA)-1922
US
@ 5,000
4.0 / 2.5
0.2
1 / 0.5
0.05
Raleigh (NC)-1907
US
@ 19,000
10.1 / 6.3
1.3
2 / 1
0.3
1927
 
@ 28,000
18.7 / 11.6
3
2 / 1.5
0.4
* LRT-DMU
 
1,000,000
56 / 35
3
16 / 10
1
Raymond (WA), US: see South Bend (WA), US
         
Reading (PA)-1907
US
@ 100,000
120.0 / 74.4
15.1
5 / 3
0.6
Redlands (CA), US: see Los Angeles (CA), US (separate tabulation)
       
Regina-1916
CA
@ 15,000
25 / 16
4.2
2 / 1
0.3
1946
 
@ 60,000
30.3 / 18.8
15
0.8
** Reims
FR
220,000
11.2 / 6.9
8
3 / 2
2
Remscheid-1966
DE
@ 210,000
11.7 / 7.3
3.7
4.5 / 2.8
1.4
Reno (NV)-1907
US
@ 11,000
11.3 / 7.0
0.7
3 / 1.5
0.1
Reutlingen-1966
DE
@ 100,000
19.5 / 12.1
9.4
3.3 / 2.0
1.6
Rheineck-RhW-1910
CH
 
1.1 / 0.6
0.09
0.8 / 0.5
0.09
1930
   
0.08
0.08
1940
   
0.07
0.06
1955
   
0.2
0.1
1970
   
1.9 / 1.2
0.1
1.9 / 1.2
0.1
1984
   
0.08
0.08
2002
 
5,000
0.1
0.1
Richmond (NY), US (New York City borough): see New York City (separate tabulation)
     
Riverside (CA), US: see Los Angeles (CA), US (separate tabulation)
       
* Roanoke (VA) - Streetcar
US
290,000
       
Rochester (NY)-1907
US
@ 220,000
164.5 / 102.4
66.6
3 / 2
1.3
Subway-1933
 
@ 330,000
13.4 / 8.3
0.5
5 / 3
0.2
ca. 1938-1940
 
@ 320,000
"
1.5
"
0.5
1942
 
"
"
2.5
"
0.9
ca. 1945-1947
 
@ 330,000
"
5
"
2
1951
 
@ 320,000
"
1.6
"
0.6
ca. 1954
 
"
"
1
"
0.4
RS&E-1907
   
57.4 / 35.6
1.1
16 / 10
*** 0.7
R&E-1907
   
66.3 / 41.1
1.4
16 / 10
0.4
Roma (Rome)
IT
3,300,000
u 2,550,000
65.9 / 40.9
75
4 / 2
4.6
    1. Met.Ro-Pantano
 
u 2,550,000
17.8 / 11.0
10
6 / 4
3.4
Rorschach-RHB-1910
CH
 
7.1 / 4.4
   
0.09
1920
   
"
0.1
5.4 / 3.3
0.07
1930
   
"
   
0.1
1940
   
"
0.2
5.6 / 3.5
0.1
1955
   
"
0.4
6.0 / 3.7
0.3
1970
   
"
0.4
5.4 / 3.3
0.2
1984
   
"
0.2
"
0.2
2002
 
14,000
"
0.3
5.9 / 3.7
0.3
Rostock
DE
200,000
27.9 / 17.3
20
3 / 2
2.2
Rotterdam-metro / LRT
NL
1,600,000
u 589,000
see Table 4.27
   
tramway
   
67.0 / 41.5
49
4 / 2
3.3
RandstadRail
   
16 / 10
8
10 / 6
5
Rouen
FR
390,000
15.6 / 9.7
15.2
3.6 / 2.2
3.5
Ryde-IL
GB
50,000
13.6 / 8.4
0.8
7.4 / 4.6
0.4
Key to Symbols:
* = in planning; ** = under construction.
*** = operated for less than 12 months as noted; traffic density scaled up to annual rate.
@ = population corresponds with historic data year.
u = population within municipal boundary.
 
Notes for Table 3.24
Raleigh: Operator title: Raleigh Electric Company (at 1907); Carolina Power and Light Company (at 1925).
LRT-DMU: "Regional Rail Project" using diesel multiple unit (DMU) rolling stock, opening planned for 2008. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (11,000 / weekday).
UPDATE: The agency responsible (Research Triangle Regional Public Transportation Authority, trading as Triangle Transit Authority) announced at 2006 August that it would remove the project from the Federal Transit Administration "New Starts" grant approval process. This action was in response to criticism by FTA (the federal agency responsible) that, because of recent changes to its "cost-effectiveness" formula, estimated costs were too high and estimated ridership too low to justify federal capital grants, planned to pay 60 percent of the construction cost. TTA planned to seek alternatives to federal funds.
Of the estimated USD 689 million project cost (at FY2005 prices), USD 148 million had been spent at 2006 August, and an additional USD 15-20 million was obligated under existing contracts. All preliminary engineering and design work was complete, and about 93 percent of the needed land was purchased.
Reading: Operator title: United Traction Company.
Operated town tramway services in Reading and adjacent towns, with suburban extensions to Adamstown, Boyertown, Birdsboro and Womelsdorf, and an unconnected line Meyerstown – Lebanon – Palmyra.
Regina: Operator title: Regina Municipal Railway.
Reims: Tramway, under construction, opening planned by 2011.
Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (35,000 / weekday). Line will use conventional tramway technology.
Reno: Operator title: Reno Traction Company.
Rheineck - RhW: Bergbahn Rheineck-Walsenhausen. Funicular to Walzenhausen, 0.362 km / 0.2 mi, opened 1896 June 27. Tramway (talbahn) between lower station and Rheineck SBB (railway station), 0.7 km / 0.4 mi opened 1909 October 2.
Closed for reconstruction 1958 May 1. Rebuilt as a rack-and-adhesion railway, reopened 1958 December 1. Merged with Appenzeller Bahnen (see under St. Gallen, Table 3.26) from 2006.
Roanoke - Streetcar: Town tramway (streetcar) line, in planning.
Planned to extend between business center (Railwalk) and Carilion biomedical area (Reserve Avenue) in Jefferson Street. Planned to use replica (heritage) rolling stock.
Rochester-1907: Operator title: Rochester Railway Company.
Subway: "Rochester Rapid Transit and Industrial Railroad," built in the disused bed of the Erie Canal. The original canal alignment (built 1817-1825) passed through central Rochester. This was replaced by a bypass skirting Rochester to the south, built as part of the New York State Barge Canal project (1903-1918). In 1922, the Rochester local authority purchased the original alignment, disused from 1919, and began building an electric railway in the old canal bed. The "subway" was planned for use by interurban tramway cars, urban local services and also for goods access to major industries located along the former canal alignment.
The the former canal alignment through the business center was covered and converted to a tunnel. A new road, Broad Street, was built above the rail alignment. East of the business center, a masonry aqueduct carried canal boats over the Genesee River. This was rebuilt with the railway in the former canal bed and Broad Street on a new upper level. The underground portion of the railway, including the "Aqueduct," extended about 1.9 km / 1.2 miles). The remainder was built in open cutting, the former canal bed. The project cost between USD12 million and 14 million (sources disagree), equivalent to about USD 200 - 300 million at today’s prices.
Broad Street was opened in 1924. The eastern portion of the railway opened for passenger service at the end of 1927. The remainder was opened in 1928, together with goods service. Interurban cars from Syracuse, Geneva and Lockport used the subway, together with local cars. The latter operated every 30 minutes from the time of opening until traffic growth justified additional service. With the exception of peak-period cars on the Dewey Avenue line, none of Rochester’s town tramway services used the subway.
The rapid proliferation of private automobiles and the economic difficulties created by the worldwide depression of the 1930s were not anticipated when the project was started. The anticipated passenger traffic failed to develop, and connecting passenger rail lines were soon closed. The Geneva interurban line closed in 1930, followed by the Lockport and Syracuse lines in 1931. The town tramway network was closed in 1941, leaving the "subway" line worked by 13 cars. Traffic peaked during the 1940s but fell off rapidly thereafter. One reason for the decline was the per-passenger rental charged by the Rochester local authority, seeking a return on its investment. The private-sector Rochester Transit Corporation, seeking to minimize this payment, did not coordinate connecting bus services with the subway and operated competing bus services. Proposals for extensions to suburban towns did not advance because financing could not be secured. The line was closed to passengers in 1956. The alignment of the eastern segment was widened and converted into a motorway, the Eastern Expressway (Interstate-490 and Interstate-590). Goods service continued over the remainder, using diesel traction from 1957. The western segment was closed in 1976 and the cutting filled with earth to avoid the cost of repairs to road bridges crossing the alignment. The last goods service, using the eastern portion of the tunnel, was withdrawn in 1996. Early in 2005, the municipal authority announced plans to fill the tunnel with earth to avoid the cost of repairs. Following months of controversy, the municipal council announced at mid-2006 that a committee would study various proposals for use of the tunnel. These include light rail transit and restoration of the former Erie Canal alignment. A decision was anticipated by 2008.
RS&E: Operator title: Rochester Syracuse and Eastern Railroad Company (at 1907). Extended Rochester – Port Byron – Syracuse.
R&E: Operator title: Rochester and Eastern Rapid Railway Company. Extended RochesterCanandaigua Geneva.
Rorschach - RHB: Rorschach-Heiden-Bergbahn. Opened 1875 September 6. Electrified 1930 May 15 (SBB system: 15kV 16⅔HZ a.c.).
Merged with Appenzeller Bahnen (see under St. Gallen, Table 3.15) from 2006.
Rostock: New 4.6-km / 2.9-mi extension opened 2003 April 12, including 0.4-km / 0.2-mi tunnel and underground station at Hauptbahnhof.
Rotterdam - metro/LRT: Part of the metro system (segments of the Calandlijn) are "LRT" (Sneltram) in character, with overhead current collection and level crossings. See Table 4.27.
TramPlus, upgraded and new tram lines. Stated objectives: Fast and reliable system for consumers, attracting new consumers (e.g. park-and-ride), and connecting to new towns and residential areas. Stated targets: Increase commercial speed from 18 to 25 km/h / 11 to 15 mph, increase cost-recovery rate, Stated design standards include reserved track (separated lanes), priority at traffic signals, automatic points (switches), average spacing between stops 500 meters / 0.3 mi, low-floor vehicles, ticket machines which accept contactless "smart cards," and 4-5 minute service frequency during peak periods. Planned system length 62 km / 38 mi, of which approximately 45 km / 28 mi upgraded from existing tram lines, and approximately 17 km / 11 mi built new.
The four TramPlus services in operation (at 2007 December):
20: Schiebroek - Lombardijen. Opened 1996. Crosses the river Nieuwe Maas, connecting with service 2, which was isolated for many years.
21: De Esch - Woudhoek (Schiedam)
23: Beverwaard - Holy (Vlaardingen). Initial segment opened 2004 March.
25: Schiebroek - Carnisselande (Barendrecht). Opened 2005.
RandstadRail: Project includes conversion of existing railway (NS) lines for service by Den Haag LRT trains and Rotterdam metro trains. Second stage, Den Haag – Rotterdam, opening planned for 2008. Trains will work from central Rotterdam over the Erasmuslijn metro. The new Statenwegtracé metro extension (3 km / 2 mi) from Rotterdam Centraal Station will connect with the NS Hofpleinlijn (the first electrified railway in The Netherlands when opened in 1908). Trains will use 13 km / 8 mi of this line north to Leidschenveen, and will continue to Den Haag Centraal station over tracks shared with Zoetermeer trains.
Rotterdam trains will use high (900mm / 2 ft 11.4 in) platforms, and Zoetermeer use low (300mm / 11.8 in) platforms. Stations along the shared portion of the Hofpleinlijn have platforms built to accommodate both types of rolling stock.
Passengers will be able to travel between central Rotterdam and Den Haag Centraal Station without change. Traffic in forecast to increase from 7,000 per weekday, carried currently by the Hofpleinlijn, to 28,000 per weekday.
Rouen: Tramway opened 1994 December 17.
 
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