Table 3.30: Tramway, Light Railway and LRT
U.S, Canada, Western Europe and Australasia
T-U          Tacoma - Utrecht     (3.30.1, 2008.6)
City and Country
Population Served
System Length, km / mi
Annual Passengers (million)
Average Travel Distance, km / mi
Annual Traffic Density (million)
           
Tacoma (WA) - 1907
US
@ 95,000
134.9 / 83.6
24.1
2 / 1.5
0.4
1915
   
"
22.7
"
0.4
1927
   
133.1 / 82.5
23.3
"
0.4
1936
   
125.3 / 77.7
13.3
"
0.3
PT - 1907
   
24.7 / 15.3
0.3
6 / 4
*** 0.2
1915
   
"
1.7
"
0.5
1927
   
22.6 / 14.0
1.3
"
0.4
LRT - 2005
 
190,000
2.9 / 1.8
0.9
1.8 / 1.1
0.5
* Streetcar
           
Tampa (FL) - TE - 1907
US
@ 40,000
54.8 / 34.0
8.4
2 / 1.5
0.4
T&SS - 1907
   
9.7 / 6.0
0.6
3 / 2
*** 0.08
TE - 1925
 
@ 75,000
75.8 / 47.0
25.2
2 / 1.5
0.8
TECO - 2005
 
300,000
3.9 / 2.4
0.5
2.6 / 1.6
0.4
* LRT
 
3,560,000
u 333,000
32.4 / 20.1
     
* Tampere
FI
295,000
56.7 / 35.2
     
Thun - STI - 1920
CH
 
26.1 / 16.2
1.1
4.0 / 2.5
0.2
1930
   
"
1.0
4.1 / 2.5
0.1
1940
   
17.0 / 10.5
0.8
4.0 / 2.5
0.2
1955
 
@ 30,00
3.3 / 2.0
0.5
2 / 1
0.3
Thunder Bay - Fort William - 1920
CA
@ 20,000
24.6 / 15.2
3.4
3 / 2
0.5
    1. 1946
 
@ 30,000
"
5.2
"
0.7
Port Arthur - 1919
 
@ 15,000
20.0 / 12.4
3.9
3 / 2
0.6
1946
 
@ 30,000
21.6 / 13.4
5.6
"
0.8
Toledo (OH) - 1907
US
@ 170,000
125.5 / 77.8
40.4
3 / 2
1.0
1914
   
110.5 / 68.5
55
"
1.6
TF&F - 1907
   
52.6 / 32.6
0.6
11 / 7
0.1
1914
   
78.2 / 48.5
0.8
16 / 10
0.2
TPC&L - 1907
   
84.8 / 52.6
0.8
16 / 10
0.1
1912
 
@ 7,500
89.2 / 55.3
0.8
"
0.1
1917
   
"
0.8
"
0.1
1922
   
"
0.6
"
0.1
1935
   
83.9 / 52.0
0.07
"
0.01
1937
   
"
0.06
"
0.01
TU&I - 1907
   
82.3 / 51.0
1.8
11 / 7
0.3
1914
   
80.6 / 50.0
1.0
16 / 10
0.2
Topeka (KS) - 1907
US
@ 40,000
41.2 / 25.5
7.6
3 / 2
0.6
Torino - urban
IT
1,320,000
u 870,000
123.0 / 76.3
80
5 / 3
3.3
Toronto - 1929
CA
@ 700,000
150 / 90
290
2 / 1
4
1932
 
@ 650,000
"
226
"
3
1946
 
@ 670,000
179.3 / 111.2
405
2.5 / 1.5
5.5
1962
 
@ 1,820,000
122 / 76
136.6
4 / 2
4
1974
 
@ 2,800,000
85 / 53
94.1
"
4
1985
 
@ 3,430,000
73.4 / 45.5
57.7
"
3
1995
 
@ 4,340,000
"
67.3
"
4
2004
 
4,680,000
79.6 / 49.4
84.3
4 / 2
4
             
Bathurst
   
5.0 / 3.1
5.5
1.5 / 1
2
Carlton
   
14.9 / 9.2
16
5 / 3
5
Dundas
   
10.8 / 6.7
12
4 / 2
4
Harbourfront
   
4.3 / 2.7
3
1.5 / 1
1
King
   
12.8 / 7.9
15
4 / 2
5
Queen
   
27.8 / 17.2
15
5 / 3
3
St. Clair
   
7.0 / 4.3
8.5
3 / 2
4
Spadina
   
3.6 / 2.3
11
1.5 / 1
6
             
Bloor - ca. 1960
   
15.6 / 9.7
30
4 / 2.5
8
TYR - 1946
   
13.0 / 8.1
10.8
2.5 / 1.5
2.0
T&Y - Metropolitan Line - 1923
   
100 / 62
2.0
80.1 / 5
0.1
1926
   
"
1.8
"
0.09
North Yonge - 1946
   
16.5 / 10.2
2.3
5 / 3
0.7
T&Y - Mimico Line - 1923
   
16 / 10
3.8
5 / 3
1.1
1926
   
"
2.3
"
0.7
T&Y Scarborough Line - 1923
   
8.2 / 5.1
1.3
3 / 2
0.5
1926
   
"
1.2
"
0.5
             
* Don Mills
   
17.6 / 10.9
21.2
5 / 3
6
* Eglinton Crosstown
   
30.8 / 19.1
53
"
8.5
* Etobicoke-Finch West
   
17.9 / 11.1
23.6
"
7
* Jane
   
16.5 / 10.2
24
"
7
* Scarborough Malvern
   
15 / 9
14
"
6
* Sheppard East
   
13.6 / 8.4
16.5
"
6
* Waterfront West
   
11 / 7
21
"
10
             
* Mississauga - Hurontario LRT
 
1,105,000
u 670,000
20 / 13
     
* Dundas West LRT
   
10 / 6
     
             
* Oshawa
 
331,000
u 142,000
see Oshawa, Table 3.17
   
             
* Toulon
FR
520,000
18.3 / 11.3
11
3 / 2
2
** Toulouse
FR
960,000
11.2 / 6.9
7
3 / 2
2
Trento - FTM - 1911
IT
 
59.2 / 36.9
0.9
13.2 / 8.2
0.2
2004
 
120,000
68.0 / 42.2
3.0
20 / 12
0.9
Trenton (NJ) - TSR - 1907
US
 
89.6 / 55.5
15.7
3 / 2
0.6
T&NB - 1907
   
37.3 / 23.1
0.9
8 / 5
0.2
BCE - 1907
   
43.2 / 26.8
0.8
6 / 4
0.1
Trieste - 1911
IT
 
16.4 / 10.2
12.5
3.8 / 2.4
3.0
Villa Opicina - 1911
   
6.2 / 3.8
0.4
5.0 / 3.1
0.3
2002
 
u 210,000
5.2 / 3.2
1.0
3 / 2
0.6
Trondheim - 1960
NO
@ 75,000
11 / 7
16.5
2 / 1
3
Gråkallbanen - 1960
   
8 / 5
2
3 / 2
0.7
2004
 
150,000
8.8 / 5.5
0.8
4 / 2
0.4
Tucson (AZ) - 1907
US
@ 13,000
 
0.6
2 / 1.5
0.1
* Modern Streetcar
 
500,000
6 / 4
1.3
2 / 1
0.3
Tulsa (OK) - Sand Springs - 1947
US
@ 175,000
16 / 10
2.0
6 / 4
0.8
1954
 
@ 235,000
"
1.1
"
0.4
* Turku
FI
290,000
43.9 / 27.2
     
Ulm - 1966
DE
@ 110,000
5.8 / 3.6
7.1
2.5 / 1.6
3.0
1984
 
@ 100,000
5.5 / 3.4
5
1.5 / 1
1.4
2002
 
110,000
"
5
"
1.4
Unna - 1911
DE
@ 37,000
14 / 9
1.2
4 / 2
0.3
1913
 
@ 39,000
20.7 / 12.8
1.7
"
0.3
1937
 
@ 44,000
20.4 / 12.7
1.2
"
0.2
Uppsala - Roslagsbanan
   
see Table 4.31
   
Utrecht - ca. 1984
NL
 
17.0 / 10.5
7
5 / 3
2
2002
 
230,000
21.5 / 13.3
10
"
2.3
Houten
   
1.9 / 1.2
     
Key to Symbols:
* = in planning; ** = under construction.
*** = operated for less than 12 months as noted; traffic density scaled up to annual rate.
@ = population corresponds with historic data year.
u = population within municipal boundary.
 
Notes for Table 3.30
Tacoma - TR&P: Operator title: Tacoma Railway and Power Company.
Electric and cable traction. Operated town tramway services in Tacoma, with suburban extensions to Puyallup, Steilacoom and Spanaway.
PTC: Operator title: Pacific Traction Company of Maine. Extended Tacoma – Steilacoom, branch to American Lake. Enterprise affiliated with TR&P. 1907: operated for 6 months only; annual traffic density scaled up to annual rate.
LRT: "Tacoma Link," opened 2003 August 22. Traffic density estimate based on most recent available data (at 2008 June).
Streetcar: Urban tramway system using replica historic rolling stock, in planning.
Tampa-TE: Operator title: Tampa Electric Company.
T&SS - 1907: Operator title: Tampa and Sulphur Springs Traction Company. Operated for 7.5 months only; annual traffic density scaled up to annual rate.
TECO: "TECO Line Streetcar System," worked by heritage (replica) rolling stock. Opened 2002 October 21 (following dedication on October 19-20). Owned by Tampa Historic Streetcar, Inc., operated under contract by Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority.
Extension, Southern Transportation Plaza – Franklin and Whiting streets, 0.5 km / 0.3 mi, in planning. Subsequent-stage extensions forecast.
LRT: "HARTRail," LRT starter line. Project stalled at early 2005 because of unfavorable evaluation by ministry responsible (Federal Transit Administration). This in turn stemmed from lack of funding to pay the local share of construction cost, and lack of "reliable" forecasts of ridership and travel-time savings. LRT deleted subsequently from Hillsborough County long-range transportation plan (to 2025).
Diesel multiple unit (DMU) stock considered in order to eliminate need for electrification and reduce cost. Line planned to extend:
--Tampa business center ("Downtown") eastward to Ybor City and northward to University of South Florida (Skipper).
--Downtown Tampa to University of Tampa, with branches to Hyde Park (South Howard) and Westshore (Boy Scout).
Eventual 5-line, 134-km / 83-mi network outlined.
New terminal at Tampa International Airport, planned for completion in 2015. Will be designed to accommodate future public transport system.
The Tampa Bay Regional Transportation Authority (TBRTA) was created by the Florida Legislature at 2007 to plan and develop public transport in Citrus, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando, Manatee and Sarasota counties. Except for a large-scale map showing prospective corridors, few details were available at the time of writing (2007 December).
Ten "Enhanced Transit" corridors were shown, with technology including "Guideway," "BRT," "Enhanced Bus" and "Transit Emphasis Corridor."
Regional population is the sum of that housed in the seven TBRTA counties. Polk County, which adjoins Hillsborough County (Tampa) to the east, was not included (population 562,000).
See also St. Petersburg (FL), Table 4.28, and Tampa, Table 4.33.
Tampere: Tam Train LRT, "Karlsruhe Model," in planning.
Plans include use of 37 km / 23 mi of existing rail lines, construction of 16.9 km / 10.5 mi of new surface tramway, and a 2.7 km / 1.7 mi tunnel beneath the business center.
Thun - STI: (STJ) Rechtsufrige Thunersee Bahn Steffisburg-Thun-Interlaken.
Extended Steffisburg – Thun – Beatenbucht – Interlaken.
Opened in stages 1913 October 10 - 1914 June 20. Beatenbucht – Interlaken, 9.1 km / 5.6 mi, closed 1939 December 18. Thun – Beatenbucht closed in stages 1952 January 31 - August 10, replaced by trolleybus. Remainder closed 1958 May 31.
Thunder Bay - General: The adjacent towns of Fort William and Port Arthur (and two adjacent townships) were merged as Thunder Bay from 1970.
Fort William: Operator title: Fort William Street Railway (municipal undertaking).
Port Arthur: Operator title: Port Arthur Civic Railway (municipal undertaking).
Toledo: Operator title: Toledo Railways and Light Company.
TU&I: Operator title: Toledo Urban and Interurban Railway Company (at 1907), Toledo Bowling Green and Southern Traction Company (at 1914). Extended Toledo – Bowling Green – Findlay, branch to Jerry City. Operated town tramway services in Findlay.
TF&F: Operator title: Toledo Fostoria and Findlay Railway Company. Extended Pemberville – Fostoria – Findlay. (Toledo – Pemberville segment opened 1908).
TPC&L: Operator title: Toledo Port Clinton and Lakeside Railway Company (to 1913), Northwestern Ohio Railway and Power Company (1913-1924), Ohio Public Service Company (from 1924).
Extended Toledo – Genoa – Oak Harbor – Port Clinton – Lakeside – Marblehead – Bay Point. Opened in stages 1904 October 22 - 1907. Marblehead – Bay Point segment opened 1911 July 1, closed 1925. Passenger service withdrawn 1939 July 11 (by which date this was one of the last "interurban electric railways" in Ohio). Goods (freight) service continued over part of the line. Last remaining segment closed 1958 July 16.
At 1916, scheduled running time Toledo – Marblehead (83.9 km / 52.0 mi) was 2 h 15 min; commercial speed was 37.3 km/h / 23.1 mph. Scheduled running time Ryan – Marblehead (79.8 km / 49.5 mi), omitting the westernmost segment on the Toledo town tramway Starr Avenue line was 2 h; commercial speed was 39.9 km/h / 24.7 mph. The "average" commercial speed provided by Ohio interurbans ca. 1915 was 32 km/h / 20 mph.
Topeka: Operator title: Topeka Railway Company.
Toronto: Operator title: Toronto Transportation Commission (to 1954), Toronto Transit Commission (from 1954). Data reported by operator pertain to "revenue passengers." Adjusted to account for "revenue and transfer passengers" for conformity with data for other cities.
Bathurst includes line 511-Bathurst.
Carlton includes line 506-Carlton.
Dundas includes line 505-Dundas.
Harbourfront includes line 509-Harbourfront (opened 1990 June 22; extended to current length 2000 July 21).
King includes lines 504-King and 508-Lakeshore Tripper.
Queen includes lines 501-Queen (incorporating former line 509-Long Branch from 1996 February 26), 502-Downtowner and 503-Kingston Road Tripper.
St. Clair includes line 512-St. Clair.
Restoration of center reservation, removed 1928-1935, started 2005. Stopped because of public controversy, resumed 2006. Completion planned by end of 2008.
Spadina includes line 510-Spadina, opened 1997 July 27.
Previous Spadina tramway line closed 1948; central segment used by Harbord tramway line closed 1966.
TYR: Operator title: Township of York Railways. Operated by TTC under contract to the Township of York local authority. Worked as Lambton (closed 1928), Oakwood, Rogers and Weston lines of TTC system.
T&Y - General: Operator title: Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario, trading as Hydro Electric Railways: Toronto and York Division (Municipal undertaking of Toronto local authority, operated by HEPC under contract).
T&Y - Metropolitan Line: Extended north Toronto (Yonge Street and Glen Echo Road) – Richmond Hill – Newmarket – Sutton, branch to Schomberg.
T&Y Mimico Line: Exended west Toronto ("Sunnyside," King Street) – New Toronto – Mimico – Long Branch – Port Credit.
T&Y Scarborough Line: Extended east Toronto (Kingston Road and Victoria Park Avenue) – Scarborough – West Hill.
NYR: Operator title: North Yonge Railways. (Municipal undertaking of Markham, North York, Richmond Hill and Vaughan local authorities, operated by TTC under contract.) Extended north Toronto (Yonge Street and Glen Echo Road) Richmond Hill.
Transit City: A proposal for seven new electric light rail transit (LRT) lines was released early at 2007 March. Total system length was stated as 120 km / 74 mi. Estimated passenger traffic was stated at 175 million passengers per year (by 2021).
The proposal includes alignments, passenger traffic estimates and cost estimates, but does not establish priorities or possible staging of construction. The authors emphasize in addition that this proposal does not identify possible sources for financing. Nor did the plan specify relative priorites for construction.
All seven lines were included in the MoveOntario 2020 transport plan released at 2007 July by the provincial authority.
The corridors, listed in the table above, are:
Don Mills: Bloor-Danforth Subway – Steeles Avenue, in Don Mills Road corridor. Possible northward extension to York region. Proposed for construction on ground-level reservation.
Southern segment, from Pape station, Bloor-Danforth Subway, proposed for construction in 2-km / 1 mi tunnel.
Eglinton Crosstown: Kennedy station (Bloor-Danforth Subway) – Toronto/Lester B. Pearson International Airport. Proposed for construction on ground-level reservation, with 8.8 km / 5.4 mi tunnel segment at central portion of line (Laird Drive – Keele Street).
Etobicoke-Finch West: Finch station (Yonge Subway) – Highway 27. Possible westward extension to Mississagua, or southward to Woodbine racetrack or Pearson Airport. Proposed for construction on ground-level reservation.
Jane: Jane Station (Bloor-Danforth Subway) – (planned) Steeles West station (Spadina Subway). Includes eastward branch to connect with St. Clair tramway line. Proposed for construction on ground-level reservation, with 2-km / 1 mi tunnel (St. Clair Avenue – Bloor Street).
Scarborough Malvern: Kennedy station (Bloor-Danforth Subway) – Malvern/Morningside. Proposed for construction on ground-level reservation (in Eglinton Avenue, Kingston Road and Morningside Avenue).
Sheppard East: Don Mills station (Sheppard subway) – Morningside Avenue. To connect with planned extension of Scarborough RT line to Sheppard Avenue, Malvern. Possible westward extension to Durham region. Proposed for construction on ground-level reservation (extending from underground interchange with Sheppard metro line at Don Mills station).
Waterfront West: Union Station/Exhibition – Long Branch. To incorporate existing Harbourfront and part of existing Queen tramway lines, with new connection between Exhibition terminal and tracks in Queensway and Lake Shore Road. Proposed for construction on ground-level reservation, with existing track upgraded to ground-level reservation where necessary.
Of the above, the Etobicoke-Finch West, Sheppard East and Don Mills corridors were being advanced by the local authority at 2007 December. Highest priority was assigned to the Etobicoke-Finch West and Sheppard East lines.
The authors estimated annual passenger traffic density based on a uniform average travel distance of 5 km / 3 mi. This was based on the average distance traveled per boarding passenger aboard Toronto’s two major metro lines.
The authors note, with interest, that none of the planned route length was served previously by tramway lines, with the following exceptions:
--The existing services to be incorporated into the Waterfront West line.
--A 1.6-km / 1.0 mi segment of the former Oakwood line (1924-1960) on Eglinton Avenue, between Oakwood Avenue and Gilbert Avenue.
Mississauga: Urban population ("u") is that for Mississauga city (which ranks sixth in Canada by population). "Population served" includes the cities of Mississauga and Brampton. The “Regional Municipality of Peel“ includes the cities of Mississauga and Brampton, together with the town of Caledon (total population 1,160,000).
The MoveOntario 2020 transport plan includes two light rail transit (LRT) lines:
Hurontario LRT: Queen Street (Brampton) – Lakeshore Road (Mississauga). Planned for construction in Hurontario Street.
Dundas West LRT: Kipling station (Bloor-Danforth Subway) – Hurontario Street. Planned for construction in Dundas Street West (Toronto city) and Dundas Street East (Mississauga city).
Toulon: Tramway, in planning, opening planned for 2009. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (50,000 / weekday).
UPDATE: The project received a Declaration of Public Utility (déclaration d'utilité publique) at the end of 2000. Other new public facilities were approved for construction following the decision to proceed. This led to a second public inquiry was started at 2004 July to reevaluate the alignment and station locations. Following a decision to build a second tube parallel to Toulon's 3-km / 2-mi road tunnel, the Mayor announced at 2006 October that the tramway project would be suspended. At 2008 June, the local authority was reported as favoring optically-guided articulated buses
Toulouse: Tramway ("Line E"), Arènes – Blagnac, under construction.
Opening planned for 2009. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (30,000 / weekday). Branch to Aéroport (Airport), in planning.
Line G, Ponts JumeauxJean-Jaurès – Montaudran, planned for opening by 2015.
Trento - FTM: Extension Malè – Marilleva, 10 km (6 mi), opened on 2003 May 4.
Trenton - TSR: operator title: Trenton Street Railway Company.
Operated town tramway services in Trenton, with suburban extensions to Yardville, Hamilton Square, Princeton, and Pennington – Hopewell.
T&NB: Operator title: Trenton and New Brunswick Railroad Company.
BCE: Operator title: Bucks County Electric Railway. Extended Trenton – Morrisville (PA) Yardley (PA) – New Hope (PA) – Lambertville, Yardley – Newtown (PA) – Doylestown (PA), and Newtown – Bristol (PA). Operated town tramway service in Morrisville.
Tucson: Operator title (at 1907): Tucson Rapid Transit Company.
Modern Streetcar: Town tramway, modern rolling stock, in planning. To extend University Medical Center – University of Arizona – Tucson business center (downtown) – Rio Nuevo “Master Plan” (redevelopment) district. Traffic density estimate based on ridership forecast (4,200 passengers / weekday). Local share of financing approved by electorate on 2006 May 16. Opening planned for 2009.
Previous town tramway, horse traction, 1898-1906. Electric traction, 1906 June 1 - 1930 December 31. Heritage tramway operation, "Old Pueblo Trolley," started 1993 April 17, using segments of original track in University Blvd. and 4th Avenue, uncovered by the local authority from 1985.
Turku: LRT, "Karlsruhe Model," in planning.
Unna: Kleinbahn Unna-Kamen-Werne, electric light railway. Extended Unna – Kamen – Werne.
Utrecht-Houten: Temporary service, using new third track along NS rail line between Houten and Houten Castellum, opened 2001 January 8.
Worked by an ex-Hannover Stadtbahn car. Established because of requirement that new housing be served immediately by public transport. Will be replaced upon completion of project to quadruple the NS line (part of the RandstadRail project) and build a new local station at Castellum; this was anticipated to occur by 2009.
 
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